CONTENTS / CHRONOLOGY (1), Docs. 1-51: Just World Campaign


• [Thomas Jefferson on banks.]   

[Thomas Jefferson on banks]

   David Brooks, e-mail dated October 16, 2008
   UNITED STATES – I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies.
   If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around [the banks] will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.
   The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.
   – Thomas Jefferson, 3rd president of US (1743 - 1826) in a Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin in 1802.

   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: David Brooks, Victoria, Australia, e-mail of October 16, 2008. ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#thomas_jefferson_on_banks
[1802]
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• [Chinese immigration, and wage forecast.]  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags

[Chinese immigration, and wage forecast]

 
   The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., p 80, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation; Speech made in San Francisco on February 4, 1890, occurrence recalled probably occurred around 1858.
   SAN FRANCISCO, U.S.A.: Part of speech made by Henry George in San Francisco on Feb 4, 1890:-
   "… One of the first times I recollect talking on such a subject was one day, when I was about eighteen, after I had come to this country, while sitting on the deck of a topsail schooner with a lot of miners on the way to the Frazer River.  We got talking about the Chinese, and I ventured to ask what harm they were doing here, if, as these miners said, they were only working the cheap diggings ?  'No harm now,' said an old miner, 'but wages will not always be as high as they are today in California.   As the country grows, as people come in, wages will go down, and some day or other white men will be glad to get those diggings that the Chinamen are now working.'  And I well remember how it impressed me, the idea that as the country grew in all that we are hoping that it might grow, the condition of those who had to work for their living must become, not better, but worse."
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#chinese
   [COMMENT: Henry George (1839-1897) was the author of Progress and Poverty (first edition 1879), Social Problems, The Science of Political Economy, and other books on economics and good governance.   COMMENT ENDS.] [~ 1858]

1.   Just World Campaign, HOMEPAGE, written Nov 11, 1998


• The Chinese on the Pacific Coast.
  United  States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  China - Empire to 1911 flag; www.metacrawler.com 

The Chinese on the Pacific Coast

 
   New York Tribune article by Henry George (as quoted in The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., pp 193-94, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation); About 2007 on Internet on this webpage: www.henry george.org/ LIFEofHG/ LHG2/ lhg201.htm , Article published May 1, 1869
   "The population of our country has been drawn from many different sources; but hitherto, with but one exception, these accessions have been of the same race, and though widely differing in language, customs and national characteristics, have been capable of being welded into a homogeneous people.  The mongolians, who are now coming among us on the other side of the continent, differ from our race by as strongly marked characteristics as do the negroes, while they will not as readily fall into our ways as the negroes.  The difference between the two races in this respect is as the difference between an ignorant but docile child, and a grown man, sharp but narrow minded, opinionated and set in character.  The negro when brought to this country was a simple barbarian with nothing to unlearn; the Chinese have a civilisation and history of their own, a vanity which causes them to look down on all other races, habits of thought rendered permanent by being stamped upon countless generations.  From present appearances we shall have a permanent Chinese population; but a population whose individual components will be constantly changing, at least for a long time to come – a population born in China, reared in China, expecting to return to China, living while here in a little China of its own, and without the slightest attachment to the country – utter heathens, treacherous, sensual, cowardly and cruel.  They bring no women with them (and probably will not for a little while yet).  . . .
   "Their moral standard is as low as their standard of comfort, and though honest in the payment of debts to each other, lying, stealing and false swearing are with the Chinamen venial sins – if sins at all.  They practise all the unnamable vices of the East, and are as cruel as they are cowardly.  Infanticide is common among them; so is abduction and assassination.  Their bravos may be hired to take life for a sum proportionate to the risk, to be paid to their relatives in case of death.  In person the Chinese are generally apparently cleanly, but filthy in their habits.  Their quarters reek with noisesome odours, and are fit breeding-places for pestilence.  They have a great capacity for secret organisations, forming a State within a State, governed by their own laws; and there is little doubt that our courts are frequently used by them to punish their own countrymen, though more summary methods are oftentimes resorted to.  The administration of justice among them is attended with great difficulty.  No plan for making them tell the truth seems to be effective.  That of compelling them to behead a cock and burn yellow paper is generally resorted to in the courts.  . . .
   "The Chinese seem to be incapable of understanding our religion; but still less are they capable of understanding our political institutions.  To confer the franchise upon them would be to put the balance of power in the Pacific in the hands of a people who have no conception of the trust involved, and who would have no wish to use it rightly, if they had – would be to give so many additional votes to employers of Chinese, or put them up for sale by the Chinese head centres in San Francisco."
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#thechinese
   [COMMENT: The writer seems to overlook the fact that the various Europeans and the Jews and some other whites who flooded into the U.S.A. were of differing races, and, of course, some had a rival religion to Christianity.  Certainly, Hungarians, Letts, and Finns were originally of Asian origin, and the Jews from Eastern Europe are probably descendants of the Khazars, a Turkic people who had formed an empire which after conversion to Judaism was gradually overthrown by the Rus (Russians and Ukrainians, etc.).
   In the late 20th and early 21st century the term "race" is despised and denigrated in many quarters, but some support for the idea that there is some "difference" is that the languages the above-named peoples spoke was certainly not Indo-European, some being more like the Turco-Ugri-Finn branch of language.  Henry George intimated that religion was important, thinking that Christianity was superior and led to a free society.  Presumably he could not foretell that a future "Christian" President of the "Great Republic" would wage unnecessary war, and would lock up and torture people without trial, in ways similar to the absolute monarchs that in other writings he rightly criticises.  COMMENT ENDS.]
   [LINK: Report of the Joint Special Committee to investigate Chinese immigration, Senate, United States of America, February 27, 1877. http://cprr. org/Museum/ Chinese_ Immigration. html   ENDS.] [May 1, 1869]

• [Mill said Chinese immigration would reduce wages.]
  France flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags  Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  China - Empire to 1911 flag; www.metacrawler.com 

[Mill said Chinese immigration would reduce wages.]

 
   John Stuart Mill, the English philosopher, writing from Avignon, France, in reply to Henry George's Tribune article "The Chinese on the Pacific Coast," (letter as quoted in The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., pp 198-200, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation); letter dated October 23, 1869, published in Transcript on Saturday, November 20, 1869
   Avignon, France, Oct. 23, 1869.
   "DEAR SIR : The subject on which you have asked my opinion involves two of the most difficult and embarrassing questions of political morality – the extent and limits of the right of those who have first taken possession of the unoccupied portion of the earth's surface to exclude the remainder of mankind from inhabiting it, and the means which can be legitimately used by the more improved branches of the human species to protect themselves from being hurtfully encroached upon by those of a lower grade in civilisation.  The Chinese immigration into America raises both of these questions.  To furnish a general answer to either of them would be a most arduous undertaking.
   "Concerning the purely economic view of the subject, I entirely agree with you; and it could be hardly better stated and argued than it is in your article in the 'New York Tribune.'  That the Chinese immigration, if it attains great dimensions, must be economically injurious to the mass of the present population; that it must diminish their wages, and reduce them to a lower stage of physical comfort and well-being, I have no manner of doubt.  Nothing can be more fallacious than the attempts to make out that thus to lower wages is the way to raise them, or that there is any compensation, in an economical point of view, to those whose labour is displaced, or who are obliged to work for a greatly reduced remuneration.  On general principles this state of things, were it sure to continue, would justify the exclusion of the immigrants, on the ground that, with their habits in respect to population, only a temporary good is done to the Chinese people by admitting part of their surplus numbers, while a permanent harm is done to a more civilised and improved portion of mankind.
   "But there is much also to be said on the other side.  Is it justifiable to assume that the character and habits of the Chinese are insusceptible of improvement?  The institutions of the United States are the most potent means that have yet existed for spreading the most important elements of civilisation down to the poorest and most ignorant of the labouring masses.  If every Chinese child were compulsorily brought under your school system, or under a still more effective one if possible, and kept under it for a sufficient number of years, would not the Chinese population be in time raised to the level of the American?  I believe, indeed, that hitherto the number of Chinese born in America has not been very great ; but so long as this is the case – so long (that is) as the Chinese do not come in families and settle, but those who come are mostly men, and return to their native country, the evil can hardly reach so great a magnitude as to require that it should be put a stop to by force.
   "One kind of restrictive measure seems to me not only desirable, but absolutely called for ; the most stringent laws against introducing Chinese immigrants as coolies, i.e., under contract binding them to the service of particular persons.  All such obligations are a form of compulsory labour, that is, of slavery ; and though I know the legal invalidity of such contracts does not prevent them being made, I cannot but think that if pains were taken to make it known to the immigrants that such engagements are not legally binding, and especially if it were made a penal offence to enter into them, that mode at least of immigration would receive a considerable check ; and it does not seem probable that any mode, among so poor a population as the Chinese, can attain such dimensions as to compete very injuriously with American labour.  Short of that point, the opportunity given to numerous Chinese of becoming familiar with better and more civilised habits of life, is one of the best chances that can be opened up for the improvement of the Chinese in their own country, and one which it does not seem to me that it would be right to withhold from them.  I am, dear sir,
   "Yours very sincerely, J. S. MILL.
   "Henry George, Esq., San Francisco, Cal."
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#mill
   [RECAPITULATION: … the extent and limits of the right of those who have first taken possession of the unoccupied portion of the earth's surface to exclude the remainder of mankind from inhabiting it, …   ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: Notice that John Stuart Mill writes about "those who have first taken possession of the unoccupied portion" of the world – as if the Amerinds and Esquimeaux were not occupying America before the Europeans arrived to steal their lands!  COMMENT ENDS.] [November 20, 1869]

• [Comment that Mill's letter supported restrictions, and tribute to him.]  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

[Comment that Mill's letter supported restrictions, and tribute to him.]

 
   Henry George, editor of Transcript, replying to J.S.Mill's letter supporting restrictions on Chinese immigration (as reprinted in The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., pp 200-202, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation); November 20, 1869 and afterwards.
   Commenting on this, the "Transcript" editorial said : "With all its qualifications, Mr. Mill's opinion entirely justifies the position of those who take ground in favour of restrictions upon the immigration of these people," for "Chinese labour has already begun to compete injuriously with white labour, and that it will soon be competing very injuriously, no one who has noticed how rapidly these people are entering and monopolising one branch of business after another, can have any doubt."  Moreover, nine-tenths of the Chinese immigrants are contract labourers and it would be useless to pass laws against such contracts ; while as for slavery, "Chinese women are sold and staked at the gambling table in San Francisco every day of the week." The editorial concluded with this tribute to the eminent English economist :
   "Yet, whether we agree or disagree with his opinions ; whether we adopt or dissent from his conclusions, no American can fail to have for this great Englishman the profoundest respect.  It is not merely the rank he has won in the republic of letters ; not merely the service he has rendered to one of the most beneficial, if not the noblest, of sciences ; not merely the courage and devotion with which he has laboured for the cause of popular rights in his own country ; not merely his high private character and pure life, which set off his great talents and public virtues, that entitle John Stuart Mill to the respect of Americans.  Beyond all this, they can never forget that he stood the true friend to their country in its darkest day ; devoting his great talents and lending his great reputation to the support of the Republic when she had closed in what seemed there her death grapple ; that it was he more than any other man who turned the tide of English opinion and sympathy in our favour, and by exhibiting the true character of the struggle, gave us the moral support of the middle class of Great Britain.  Services such as these entitle John Stuart Mill to something more from us than even the respect which is due him as a writer, statesman or philosopher – to our affection as well as our admiration."
   The "Transcript" editorial with the Mill letter made something like a sensation throughout California.  Some of the pro-Chinese papers republished both in garbled form, and in such form the letter may have got back to Mill.  […]
   Some of the pro-Chinese papers in California … took to abusing Henry George; one of them, the San Francisco "Bulletin," saying that Mill had been misled by George in the "New York Tribune" article, as that was "written from the exaggerated standpoint of a certain class of political alarmists …"
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#comment
[November 20, 1869 and afterwards]

•  Report Of The Joint Special Committee To Investigate Chinese Immigration, Senate of the United States of America, February 27, 1877. United States of America flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags 
   REPORT OF THE JOINT SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE CHINESE IMMIGRATION, U.S.A., February 27, 1877; http://cprr. org/Museum/ Chinese_ Immigration. html
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#report_of_the
[February 27, 1877]

• [Nominated by Anti-Coolies and independent groups.] 

[Nominated by Anti-Coolies and independent groups.]

 
   The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., p 288, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation; occurrences around August 20-26, 1877
   SAN FRANCISCO, U.S.A.: In his diary he noted on August 20, "Found I had been nominated for the State Senate at Charter Oak Hall," an independent political organisation.  Five days later the diary showed that he was "nominated last night by Anti-Coolies," a workingmen's anti-Chinese movement. … wrote declination to Anti-Coolies … wrote declination to Charter Oak …"
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#nominated
[~ August 20-26, 1877]

• [Workmen denounce monopolies, Chinese immigration.] 

[Workmen denounce monopolies, Chinese immigration.]

 
   The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., p 290, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation; occurrence in 1877
   SAN FRANCISCO, U.S.A.: In California the depression was deepened by a drought during the preceding winter months and by a heavy decline in the output of the silver mines on the Comstock Lode, which brought down all the stocks on the California exchanges and for the time stopped the speculation of the outside world through this market.  At this period when workmen all over the State were idle, the Central Pacific Railroad, controlling practically every mile of track in the State, proposed to reduce wages.  In San Francisco workmen held mass meetings, to denounce on the one side the great monopolies, and particularly the railroad, as oppressing the masses of labouring men; and on the other, Chinese immigration, as subjecting them to starvation competition.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#workmen
[1877]

• Scotland and Scotsmen.   

  SCOTLAND and SCOTSMEN  


"There is no natural reason for poverty."
   The Henry George Foundation Australia (then of 18 George Parade, Melbourne), P. J. Markham, editor, booklet dated December 1935, and see http://www. schalkenbach. org/library/ george.henry/ scotland &scotsmen.htm , An Address Delivered in the City Hall, Glasgow, Scotland, by Henry George, on February 18, 1884
   This is the second time I have had the privilege of standing in this hall.  I visited Scotland once before, but only Glasgow. I came in by night in a Pullman car, and I went back again by night in a Pullman car, and I saw nothing of the country.  The audience that I then addressed was an Irish audience – it was on St. Patrick’s night.  This audience is a general audience; I presume a Scottish audience. [p 5] […]
   … Low wages, want, vice, degradation – these are not the fruits of Christianity.  They come from the ignoring and denial of the vital principles of Christianity.  Let you people of Glasgow not merely erect church after church, you also subscribe money to send missionaries to the heathen.  I wish the heathen were a little richer, that they might subscribe money and send missionaries to such so-called Christian communities as this – to point to the luxury, the very ostentation of wealth, on the one hand, and to the bare-footed, ill-clad women on the other; to your men and women with bodies stunted and minds distorted; to your little children growing up in such conditions that only a miracle can keep them pure! [p 7] […]
   But take the bare facts.  Among what tribe of savages in the whole world, in anything like a time of peace, would such a thing as that be possible?  I have seen, I believe, the most unfortunate savages on the face of the earth – the Tierra del Fuegians, who are spoken of as “the very lowest of mankind”; the black-fellows of Australia; the Digger Indians of California.  I would rather take my chances, were I on the threshold of life tonight, among those people, than come into the world in this highly-civilised Christian community in the condition in which thousands are compelled to live. [p 8] […]
   … No one could be hurt by the resumption of the land as common property, save those who could well afford to have their incomes lessened.  The person of small means who had got a house and lot would be the direct gainer by the change which would exempt houses from taxation, and put it upon lots, while being an enormous gainer by the increase of wealth and the rise in wages.  Then the businessmen who are landowners would profit by the improvement and stimulation of the productive energies of society far more than they would lose as landlords.  The typical landlord is the man who goes to the Mediterranean in a yacht, and spends the money which he draws from the toil of the people here.  Or, like that Dublin man, known as ‘Cosey’ Murphy, who practically went to bed for seven years.  At the end of that time he woke to find himself twice as wealthy as when he went to bed.  ‘Cosey’ Murphy was, of’course, a landowner.  Without any effort on his part, the progress and activity of the community increased the value of the land he held, and that is how he grew wealthy while he slept.  Consider, the real thing that would be taken from the people who demand compensation is not land, but the power which the possession of land now gives them of levying tolls upon the labour of others.  What does the Duke of Sutherland want with his twelve hundred thousand acres; or the Duke of Westminster with his London estates?  No more than the Earl of Alrlie wants with the water that he sold.  They want to have the privilege of taking the wealth of the people who have produced it. [pp 30-31] […]
   … We who speak this language are on both sides of the Atlantic but one people becoming every day more one.  The agitation must go forward on both sides of the Atlantic – by action and reaction.  America must be affected through England and Scotland, and England and Scotland will be affected through America.  Whatever we do, we do for this whole, great imperial race – the race to whom the destiny of modern civilisation is entrusted. [p 32] […]

   [RECAPITULATION: I have seen, I believe, the most unfortunate savages on the face of the earth – the Tierra del Fuegians, who are spoken of as “the very lowest of mankind”; the black-fellows of Australia; the Digger Indians of California. […] Whatever we do, we do for this whole, great imperial race – the race to whom the destiny of modern civilisation is entrusted. ENDS.]
   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Added to help a Melbourne man to understand some global aspects, on Nov 19, 2008. ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#scotland_and_scotsmen
[Feb 18, 1884]

• [Australian secret ballot advocated by Henry George.]  Australia flag; www.flagaustnat.asn.au /  United  States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

[Australian secret ballot advocated by Henry George.]

 
   The Life of Henry George, Book © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation; on Internet at: www.henry george.org/ LIFEofHG/ LHG3/ lhg311.htm , occurred in 1890
   SYDNEY (NSW), Australia: On the day of landing at Sydney, Mrs. George's native city, there was an official reception at the town hall by Mayor Sydney Burdekin, and a number of other city as well as colonial dignitaries, irrespective of political parties. Indeed, the Mayor himself was one of the largest land-owners of Sydney, so that his action bespoke a broad, generous mind. Mr. George had first to make a short speech from a carriage to a dense throng before the hall; and then when he entered and received the formal welcome of the Mayor, he made a long speech, of which this was a passage, as reported by the Sydney "Daily Telegraph":
" 'In 1883 I wrote an article in the "North American Review" proposing the introduction of the Australian system of voting in the United States, and I was warned to beware of the action I was taking. But when I left my country a month ago ten States had adopted it, and it is certain eventually to be carried in everyone of the forty-two States and to become the American system. If you can teach us more, for God's sake teach it. Advance Australia!' A thunder of applause followed this declaration, which was delivered with an effect at once remarkable and indescribable."
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#australian_secret_ballot
[1890]

• [In 1892 came U.S. ban; right of exclusion defended.]  United  States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  China - Empire to 1911 flag; www.metacrawler.com 

[In 1892 came U.S. ban; right of exclusion defended]

 
   The Life of Henry George, © 1900, 1960 edition, by Henry George, Jr., pp 201-203, New York, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation); reporting 1892, etc.
   The "Transcript" editorial with the Mill letter [November 20, 1869] made something like a sensation throughout California.  Some of the pro-Chinese papers republished both in garbled form, and in such form the letter may have got back to Mill. […]
   Some of the pro-Chinese papers in California … took to abusing Henry George; one of them, the San Francisco "Bulletin," saying that Mill had been misled by George in the "New York Tribune" article, as that was "written from the exaggerated standpoint of a certain class of political alarmists who either have not carefully studied the facts or who use the question as a good demagogue card to win ignorant votes."  But notwithstanding such utterances, George's "New York Tribune" article expressed a strong and strengthening sentiment that soon dominated State politics, inspired a long series of legislative acts, and eventuated in 1892, twenty-three years afterwards, in the passage by Congress of the Geary law, prohibiting "the coming of Chinese persons into the United States" and providing for deportation under certain conditions.
   To the end of his life Mr. George held to the views against free entrance of the Chinese set forth in his "Tribune" article in 1869.  They appear in many of his subsequent California speeches and writings, and in 1881 were set out fully in a signed article published in Lalor's "Cyclopedia of Political Science, Political Economy and of the Political History of the United States."
   And when in the fall of 1893, William Lloyd Garrison of Boston addressed a letter to James G. Maguire, who represented the Fourth California District in Congress, upbraiding the congressman with being false to his single tax principles of equal rights, in supporting and voting for an amendment extending the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, Mr. George replied (New York November 30), a copy of the letter to Maguire having been sent to him by Garrison:
   "To your proposition that the right to the use of the earth is not confined to the inhabitants of the United States, I most cordially assent.  But what you seem to think follows from that, 'The humblest Chinaman has as much natural right to use the earth of California as yourself, and it is your inalienable right to change your residence to any land under the sun,' I most emphatically deny.  Are men merely individuals?  Is there no such thing as family, nation, race?  Is there not the right of association, and the correlative right of exclusion?  . . .
   "Your parallel between those who supported slavery and those who oppose Chinese immigration is not a true one.  The first of the evils wrought by African slavery in the United States was the bringing hither of large numbers of the blacks, an evil which still remains a source of weakness and danger, though slavery is gone.  Let me ask you : If to-day there was the same possibility of a great coming of African negroes to this country as there would be of Chinamen if all restriction were removed, would you consider it a wise thing to permit it under present conditions?  And would you consider it at all inconsistent with your anti-slavery principles or with your recognition of human equality to try to prevent it ?  I certainly would not.  . . .
   "I have written to you frankly, but I trust not unkindly.  I have for you too much respect and affection to wantonly accentuate any difference there may be in our ways of looking at things."
   But while approving of Chinese exclusion "under present conditions," Henry George could conceive of a state of things under which such a policy would not be necessary.  In a lecture in San Francisco 1 while writing "Progress and Poverty," he said :  "Ladies and gentlemen, it is not only more important to abolish land monopoly than to get rid of the Chinese ; but to abolish land monopoly will be to make short work of the Chinese question.  Clear out the land-grabber and the Chinaman must go.  Root the white race in the soil, and all the millions of Asia cannot dispossess it."
____________________
1 "Why Work is Scarce, Wages Low, and Labour Restless," Metropolitan Temple, March 26, 1878.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#in1892
   [RECAPITULATION: To the end of his life Mr. George {died 1897} held to the views against free entrance of the Chinese set forth in his "Tribune" article in 1869. ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: The indigenous people, i.e., the Amerinds (Red Indians) and Eskimos, are evidently not worthy of consideration in this passage which includes a discussion of what he describes as the white race and the blacks/negroes.  The indigenous peoples, whose native title to the land had been violently set aside, and whose remnants were forced onto reservations, were not even worthy of a serious mention!  ENDS.] [1892]


1900s begin (20th century starts)
• The delusion of super-production.  United Kingdom flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 

THE DELUSION OF SUPER-PRODUCTION

   The English Review, by Major Clifford Hugh Douglas (of Britain), p 428, December 1918
   It is hardly necessary to draw attention to the insistence with which we are told that in order to pay for the war we must produce more manufactured goods than ever before–a powerful section of the Press would have the whole military, political, social and industrial policy of the Allied Governments directed to that purpose, […]
   … the world was over-manufacturing before the war … the immense development of advertising; … the cost of selling a sewing machine, amongst many other intances, was higher than the manufacturing cost; … a new model, not novel in any real essential, appeared from most of the motor-car works each year … the barter of trade gin … abroad … the struggle for markets; of which struggle war was the inevitable and final outcome. […]
   The factory cost–not the selling price–of any article under our present industrial and financial system is made up of three main divisions–direct labour cost, material cost and overhead charges …
   … intensified production means a progressively higher ratio of overhead charges to direct labour cost, and, apart from artificial reasons, this is simply an indication of the extent to which machinery replaces manual labour, as it should. […]
   … the book value of the world's production is continually growing more and more in excess of the capacity to absorb or liquidate it … with the result that a continuous rise in the cost of living absolutely must take place, apart and above that represented by currency inflation … leading along a path of cumulative fierce competition and harder toil … money … an increasing amount going to swell the mortgage held by the banker and the manufacturer on the effective effort of the world's population. […]
   … attack the second urgent necessity, the reduction of money in any form whatever to the status of an absolute medium of exchange. […]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#the_delusion_of
   [SOURCE: As reprinted in the book Economic Democracy, with The Delusion of Super-Production, by C.H.Douglas, Fifth Edition, 1974, Bloomfield Publishers, Epsom. ISBN 0904656 004, pages 145-153. ENDS.]
   [RECAPITULATION: … the struggle for markets; of which struggle war was the inevitable and final outcome. ENDS.] [December 1918]

• [Shortage of Purchasing Power] – Economic Democracy 

[Shortage of Purchasing Power] – Economic Democracy

 
   Book Economic Democracy, 1920, by Clifford Hugh Douglas (of Britain); Melbourne, The Social Credit Press; Parts of Chapter 5, pp 57-59, 61-65, Australian edition 1933 (original publication 1920)
   GREAT BRITAIN:  LOOKED at from this standpoint it is fairly clear that the kernel of the problem is factory cost, since it is quite possible to conceive of a limited company in which the shares were all held by the employees, either equally or in varying proportions, according to their grade, and the selling costs were internal – that is to say, all advertising was done by the firm itself, and the cost of its salesmen, etc., was either negligible, or confined to their salaries.
   We should then have the complete profit-sharing enterprise in its ultimate aspect, and the argument against Capitalism in its usual form would not arise. Such an undertaking would, let us assume, make a complicated engineering product, requiring expensive plant and machinery, and would absorb considerable quantities of power and light, lubricants, etc., much of which would be wasted; and would inevitably produce a certain amount of scrap the value of which would be less than the material in the form in which it entered the works.
   The machinery would wear out, and would have to be replaced and maintained, and generally it is clear that for each unit of production there would be three main divisions of factory cost, the "staple" raw material, the wages and salaries, and a sum representing a proportion of the cost of upkeep on the whole of the plant, which might easily equal 200 per cent, of the wages and salaries.
   As the plant became more automatic by improvements in process, the ratio which these plant costs bore to the cost of labour and salaries would increase. The factory cost of the total production, therefore, would be the addition of these three items: staple material, labour and salaries, and plant cost, and with the addition of selling charges and profit, this would be the selling price.
   As a result of the operations of the undertaking, the wealth of the world would thus be apparently increased by the difference between the value of all the material entering the factory, and the total sum represented by the selling price of the product.
   But it is clear that the total amount distributed in wages, salaries and profit or dividends, would be less by a considerable sum (representing purchases on factory account) than the total selling price of the product, and if this is true in one factory it must be true in all. Consequently, the total amount of money liberated by manufacturing processes of this nature is clearly less than the total selling price of the product.
   This difference is due to the fact that while the final price to the consumer of any manufactured article is steadily growing with the time required for manufacture, during the same time the money distributed by the manufacturing process is being returned to the capitalist through purchases for immediate consumption. […]
   [p 61] But we know that the total increase in the personal cash accounts in the banks in normal times is under 3 per cent, of the wages, salaries and dividends distributed, consequently it is not to these accounts that we must look for effective demand. There are two sources remaining; loan-credit, that is to say, purchasing power created by the banks on principles which are directed solely to the production of a positive financial result; and foreign or export demand.
   Now loan-credit is never available to the consumer as such, because consumption as such has no commercial value. In consequence loan-credit has become the great stimulus either to manufacture or to any financial or commercial operation which will result in a profit, that is to say, an inflation of figures.
   [p 62] An additional factor also conies into play at this point. All large scale business is settled on a credit basis. In the case of commodities in general retail demand, the price tends to rise above the cost limit, because the sums distributed in advance of the completion of large works become effective in the retail market, while the large works, when completed, are paid for by an expansion of credit. This process involves a continuous inflation of currency, a rise in prices, and a consequent dilution in purchasing power.
   The reason that the decrease in the consumer's purchasing power has not been so great as would be suggested by these considerations is, of course, largely due to intrinsic cheapening of processes which would, if not defeated by this dilution of the consumer's purchasing power, have brought down prices faster than they have risen.
   There are thus two processes at work; an intrinsic cheapening of the product by better methods, and an artificial decrease [p 63] in purchasing power due to what is in effect the charging of the cost of all waste and inefficiency to the consumer. And it is clear that under this system the greater the volume of production the larger will be the absolute value of the waste which the consumer has to pay for, whether he will or no, because as the bank credits are created at the instance of the manufacturer, and repaid out of prices, each article produced dilutes, by the ratio of its book price to all the credits outstanding, the absolute purchasing power of the money held by any individual.
   These facts are quite unaffected by the perfectly sound argument that increased production means decreased cost per piece, since it is the total production price which has to be liquidated.
   Already there is not very much left of the argument for the innate desirability of unlimited, unspecified and intensified manufacturing under the existing economic system, but more trouble yet is ahead of it. While the ratio of plant charges to total wages and salaries cost is less than 1 : 1 over the whole range of commodities, a general rise in direct rates of pay may mean a rise (but not a proportionate rise) in the purchasing power of those who obtain their remuneration in this way.
   But when by the increased application of mechanical methods the average overhead charge passes the ratio of one to one (which it rapidly will, and should do on this basis of calculation) every general increase in rates of pay of "direct" labour may mean an actual decrease in real pay, because the consumer is only interested in ultimate products and overhead charges do not represent ultimate products in existence.
   The whole argument which represents a manufactured article as an access of wealth to the country and to everyone concerned, no matter what its description and utility, so long as by any method it can be sold and wages distributed in respect of it, will, therefore, be seen to be a dangerous fallacy based on an entirely wrong conception, which is epitomised in the use of the word [p 65] "production," and fostered by ignorance of financial processes.
   Manufacturing of any kind whatever, even agriculture in a limited sense, is the conversion of one thing into another, which process is only advantageous to the extent that it subserves a definite requirement of human evolution. In any case, it shares with all other conversions the characteristic of having only a fractional efficiency, and the waste of effort involved, although being continually reduced by improvements of method, still can only be paid for in one way, by effort on the part of somebody.
   If this effort is useful effort – "useful" in the sense that a definite, healthy and sane human requirement is served – the wealth and standard of living of the community may thereby be enhanced. If the effort is aimless or destructive, the money attached to it does not alter the result. […]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#shortage
   [RECAPITULATION: … it is clear that the total amount distributed in wages, salaries and profit or dividends, would be less by a considerable sum (representing purchases on factory account) than the total selling price of the product […]
   … loan-credit, that is to say, purchasing power created by the banks on principles which are directed solely to the production of a positive financial result …
   The whole argument which represents a manufactured article as an access of wealth to the country and to everyone concerned, no matter what its description and utility, so long as by any method it can be sold and wages distributed in respect of it, will, therefore, be seen to be a dangerous fallacy based on an entirely wrong conception … . ENDS.] [1920]

• [Communal credit usurped by banks.] 

[Communal credit usurped by banks]

 
   Book Economic Democracy, 1920, by Clifford H. Douglas, Part of Chapter 9, pp 120-121, Australian edition 1933 (orig. 1920)
   GREAT BRITAIN:  … There is no doubt whatever that the first step towards dealing with the problem is the recognition of the fact that what is commonly called credit by the banker is administered by him primarily for the purpose of private profit, whereas it is most definitely communal property. In its essence it is the estimated value of the only real capital – it is the estimate of the potential capacity under a given set of conditions, including plant, etc., of a Society to do work. The banking system has been allowed to become the administrator of this credit and its financial derivative [p 121] with the result that the creative energy of mankind has been subjected to fetters which have no relation whatever to the real demands of existence, and the allocation of tasks has been placed in unsuitable hands.
   Now it cannot be too clearly emphasised that real credit is a measure of the reserve of energy belonging to a community and in consequence drafts on this reserve should be accounted for by a financial system which reflects that fact.
   If this be borne in mind, together with the conception of "Production" as a conversion, absorbing energy, it will be seen that the individual should receive something representing the diminution of the communal credit-capital in respect of each unit of converted material.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#communal
   [RECAPITULATION: … what is commonly called credit by the banker is administered by him primarily for the purpose of private profit, whereas it is most definitely communal property.  … the creative energy of mankind has been subjected to fetters which have no relation whatever to the real demands of existence, and the allocation of tasks has been placed in unsuitable hands.   ENDS.] [1920]

• [Global Trade Competition Illusion.] 

[Global Trade Competition Illusion]

 
   Book Economic Democracy, 1920, by Clifford H. Douglas, Part of Chapter 11, pp 144-47, Australian edition 1933 (orig. 1920)
   GREAT BRITAIN: [p 144] - We have already seen that a feature of the industrial economic organisation at present is the illusion of international competition, arising out of the failure of internal effective demand as an instrument by means of which production is distributed.
   This failure involves the necessity of an increasing export of manufactured goods to undeveloped countries, and this forced export, which is common to all highly developed capitalistic States, has to be paid for almost entirely by the raw material of further exports.
   Now, it is fairly clear that under a system of centralised control of finance such as that we are now considering, this forced competitive export becomes impossible; while at the same time the share of product consumed inside the League becomes increasingly dependent on a frenzied acceleration of the process.
   [p 145] The increasing use of mechanical appliances, with its capitalisation of overhead charges into prices, renders the distribution of purchasing power, through the medium of wages in particular, more and more ineffective; and as a result individual discontent becomes daily a more formidable menace to the system.
   It must be evident therefore that an economic system involving forced extrusion of product from the community producing, as an integral component of the machinery for the distribution of purchasing power, is entirely incompatible with any effective League of Nations, because the logical and inevitable end of economic competition is war.
   Conversely, an effective League of Free Peoples postulates the abolition of the competitive basis of society, and by the installation of the co-operative commonwealth in its place makes of war not only a crime, but a blunder.
   Under such a modification of world policy, inter-change of commodities would take place with immeasurably greater freedom than at present, but on principles [p 146] exactly opposite to those which now govern Trade. The manufacturing community now struggles for the privilege of converting raw material into manufactured goods for export to less developed countries. Non-competitive industry would largely leave the trading initiative to the supplier of raw material.
   Since any material received in payment of exported goods would find a distributed effective demand waiting for it, imports would tend to consist of a much larger proportion of ultimate products for immediate consumption than is now the case; thus forcing on the more primitive countries the necessity of exerting native initiative in the provision of distinctive production.
   Again, International legislation in regard to labour conditions under a competitive system must always fail at the point at which it ceases to be merely negative, because it has ultimately to consider employment as an agency of distribution, and rightly considered distribution should be a function of work accomplished, not of work in [p 147] progress, i.e., employment.
   As a consequence, this most important field of constructive effort resolves itself into a battleground of opposing interests, both of which are merely concerned with an effort to get something for nothing.
   The inevitable compromise can be in no sense a settlement of such questions, any more than the succession of strikes for higher pay and shorter hours, which are based on exactly the same conception, can possibly result in themselves in a stable industrial equilibrium.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#global
   [RECAPITULATION: It must be evident therefore that an economic system involving forced extrusion of product from the community producing, as an integral component of the machinery for the distribution of purchasing power, is entirely incompatible with any effective League of Nations, because the logical and inevitable end of economic competition is war.   ENDS.] [1920]

• [Freedom to Co-operate through Decentralisation.] 

[Freedom to Co-operate through Decentralisation]

 
   Book Economic Democracy, 1920, by Clifford H. Douglas, Part of Chapter 12, pp 152-54, Australian edition 1933 (orig. 1920)
   GREAT BRITAIN: The policy suggested in the foregoing pages is essentially and consciously aimed at pointing the way, in so far as it is possible at this time, to a society based on the unfettered freedom of the individual to co-operate in a state of affairs in which community of interest and individual interest are merely different aspects of the same thing. It is believed that the material basis of such a society involves the administration of credit by a decentralised local authority; the placing of the control of process entirely in the hands of the organised producer (and this in the broadest sense of the evolution of goods and services) and the fixing of prices on the broad principles of use value, by the community as a whole operating by the most flexible representation possible. […]
Thus out of threatened chaos might the
Dawn break ; a Dawn which at the best
must show the ravages of storm,
but which holds clear for all
to see the promise of
a better Day.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#freedom
   [RECAPITULATION: … unfettered freedom of the individual to co-operate in a state of affairs in which community of interest and individual interest are merely different aspects of the same thing.   ENDS.] [1920]

• [Government bank financed Australia during First World War.]   

[Government bank financed Australia during First World War]

   Sir Denison Miller, governor of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, 1921
   When, during an interview in 1921, Sir Denison Miller was asked if he, through the Commonwealth Bank, had financed Australia during the war for $700 million, he replied: “Such was the case and I could have financed the country for a further like sum had the war continued.”  Again, asked if that amount was available for productive purposes in times of peace, he answered in the affirmative. (Australia’s Government Bank. p. 275, by L.C. Jauncey, Ph.D.)

   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: CC. ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#government_bank_financed
[Interview of 1921]

• [Businessmen who backed Adolf Hitler]
     

[Businessmen who backed Adolf Hitler]

   The rise and fall of the Third Reich; A History of Nazi Germany, Fawcett Crest Books, New York, ISBN 0-449-23442-8, © 1959, 1960, by William L. Shirer, pp 162, 203-04 and 287, actual occurrences 1923-1940s.
   [p 162] While Hitler was in prison [to December 1924] a financial wizard by the name of Dr Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht had been called in to stabilize the currency. …
   [p 203] Emil Kirdorf, the union-hating coal baron, … had been seduced by Hitler at the party congress in 1929.  Fritz Thyssen, the head of the steel trust, … I paid Hitler … had met the Nazi leader in Munich in 1923 … and forthwith made, through Ludendorff, an initial gift of 100,000 gold marks ($25,000) … Albert Voegler … United Steel Works.  In fact the coal and steel interests were the principal sources of the funds that came from the industrialists to help Hitler over his last hurdles to power in the period 1930 to 1933.
   … Georg von Schnitzler … of I.G.Farben … August Rosterg and August Diehn of the potash industry … Cuno of the Hamburg-Amerika line; the brown-coal industry … the Conti rubber interests; Otto Wolf … industrialist … Baron Kurt von Schroeder, the Cologne banker … the Deutsche Bank, the Commerz und Privat Bank, the Dresdener Bank, the Deutsche Kredit Gesellschaft; and Germany's largest insurance concern, the Allianz.
   [p 204]… Hugo Bruckman … Munich publisher … Carl Bechstein, the piano manufacturer …
   [1933, p 287]… Hitler … named Dr Karl Schmitt as Minister of Economics … Schmitt … was director general of Allianz, Germany's largest insurance company …
   [1935, p 358] … Hitler … In the secret Defence Law of May 21, 1935, he appointed Schacht Plenipotentiary-General for War Economy …
   [1934, p 358] … Dr Schacht … on September 30, 1934 submitted a report entitled "Report on the State of Work for War-Economic Mobilization as of September 30, 1934".
   [1930s-40s, p 359] … Schacht … to the astonishment of orthodox economists successfully demonstrated that the more you owed a country the more business you did with it.  His creation of credit in a country that had little liquid capital and almost no financial reserves was the work of genius.  His invention of the so-called "Mefo" bills … to pay armament manufacturers … 1935 to 1938 … twelve billion marks.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#businessmen_who_backed
   [RECAPITULATION: … the more you owed a country the more business you did with it … His creation of credit … was the work of genius. … to pay armament manufacturers … 1935 to 1938 … twelve billion marks. ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: Meanwhile, the "democracies" were pretending to their electors that there was "no money" for worker housing, and allowed shipbuilders' yards to close and navies to run down.  In fact, it wasn't until regular bombings occurred over Britain that the Establishment there woke up that their own skins were at risk, and suddenly millions and millions of pounds "appeared" to catch up on the scandalous disarmament, and gave millions of people a proper income again as they "exported" war equipment, bullets, and bombs.  But except for a few years after 1945, any minor party or independent that suggests low-interest loans is sneered off the public stage. ENDS.] [occurred 1923-1940s]

• [1934 --] Plans for War in 1934.  Germany flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags 

Plans for War in 1934

   Annals Australasia, annals australasia @nareg. com.au , p 3, August 2007 (quotation from German book published in 1934)
THE ENGLISH PROPAGANDA was run entirely by civilians, the German by soldiers; the latter is the wrong way, because it is not the soldier's but the psychologist's opinion that counts here.
   Actual methods need not be discussed in a book which is concerned with the main outlines rather than the details of the problems it discusses.
   Suffice it to say that good propaganda must be unobtrusive, that its object must not be apparent at all, if it is to be effectual and have a permanent and decisive influence on the mind of a nation.
   It needs to be planned a long way ahead and we must not expect it to bear fruit in a couple of months or even years.
   Hence good propaganda should begin in peace-time and operate in such a way that the country running it reaps its fruits as soon as war is declared.
   War-time propaganda ought to be merely the more concentrated and, of course, more vigorous continuation of peace-time propaganda.
   The most important points are:- setting up auxiliary centres in foreign capitals; literary propaganda, by influencing the press and also by producing books and pamphlets; the provision of effective films and broadcasting-items; the erection of public utility buildings adapted to the character of the people, e.g. reading-rooms or drinking-fountains or industrial institutes, as the case may be; finally, mouth-to-mouth propaganda with the help of native agents.
- Ewald Banse, Germany, 1934, Prepare for War! London, Lovat Dickson, p.71.  Banse was Professor of Military Science in Brunswick, Germany.  This translation of Banse's book was on sale in England in 1934 and thereafter. Few read it and fewer, evidently, took it seriously. #
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/submit/cont.htm#plans_for_war
   [BACKGROUND: The German elites made Hitler the Chancellor in 1933.  The first edition of his own book, Mein Kampf  (My Struggle) had been published in 1925 stating that Nazis wanted to take more living room in the East, and would remove Jews and other non-Germans from the nation.  War was a probable method for achieving the first ambition, and serious attacks on civilians the second.  These books, like others in the world's history, was also not regarded seriously by the Establishments in most countries. ENDS.] [occurred 1934]

• 1937: John Curtin, Leader of the Australian Labor Party, speaks on national defence, employment and banking policy during the 1937 Federal Election campaign   

John Curtin, Leader of the Australian Labor Party, speaks on national defence, employment and banking policy during the 1937 Federal Election campaign

   John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library, Curtin University (Perth, Western Australia), http://john.curtin.edu.au/ audio/ 00128_1_1. html , 1937
   Records of Helen Ralston. John Curtin, 1937 Federal Election speech on national defence, employment & banking policy. JCPML00128/1/1. (duration 12 minutes).  NOTE: You'll need Quicktime 6 to listen to this audio file.
   AUSTRALIA – START OF AUDIO CLIP:
   [This is] Mr John Curtin, the leader of the Australian Labor Party, talking to you in connection with the election on October 23rd.
   Let me say a word about defence. All governments, in all countries, and whatever their policy or label, profess to favour international peace. All claim to be non-aggressive; all claim to be armed purely for defensive purposes. Not one admits the desire for war, but all are ready for participation in war. The Australian Labor Party exists primarily for the social uplift of the great mass of the people. It is, however, confronted with the universal fact of preparedness for war. It cannot ignore it; it does not and it has never attempted to ignore it.
   From its very inception the Labor Movement has stood for national defence. It supplied the first Australian government that transformed words into tanks; it gave Australia a navy; a well trained army; a national small arms factory; a national woollen mills; a national clothing factory; national munition works; and behind them all, it provided the national note issue and the Commonwealth Bank.
   On the ground that those who are wounded in the struggle for existence are entitled to national support, Labor created invalid pensions. On the ground that no man was entitled to first choice of benefits gained by other men's efforts, it gave preference to unionists. Because land monopoly was an evil it placed a commutative tax, not on the processes of production, but on the accumulation of land by a few. In that way it started the way to closer settlement.
   Those reforms in banking, in currency, in land and in industry, all part of a progressive policy, were interrupted by the world war. That war produced increased mechanisation in industry and new methods for the destruction of life. It was followed by giant strides in aviation, new international alignments, the looming futility of the League of Nations, and the decline of western power in the east. This all meant a new external environment for Australia and to the Australian Labor Party it has meant that the future no longer involve[s] the shipment of armies to European battle fields, but preparedness for the defence of Australia's own soil. Therefore in the election policy speech of two campaigns ago, the Labor Party declared that there could be no effective defence, no advancing social benefits, no uplift in the conditions of wage earners without prior expansion of the ramifications, functions and power of the Commonwealth Bank. It declared the banking reform and the use of the national credit with a ground work for economic expansion without increasing interest burdens.
   Of all the schemes for national defence that put forward by the Labor Party was the first to regard aerial fleets as Australia's first line of security against defence. As a counter to Labor's policy, the then Bruce-Page Government promised motherhood endowment, widows, orphans and unemployed insurance and protection against sickness. It won the elections right enough but it scraped [? scrapped] the promises. What it did do was to place the nation's bank under the control of a board of private directors. It continued in office for years and went out with Australia in a bog of financial and industrial disaster. The responsibility of meeting the crisis was handed to the Labor Government of 1929-31. That government, as you will recall, was hamstrung by a hostile Senate and a dictatorial Commonwealth Bank Board. Between them they held the fort for vested interests. In 1931 the Lyons Government was returned to reap the benefit of the arduous years of the Labor Government's work.
   Now, as a result of the expenditure by a war-fearful world of hundreds of millions of pounds, a new stimulus has been given to industry and to employment. Needless to say the Lyons-Page Government claims credit for this so-called recovery. But it does nothing to safeguard Australia against the slump which is inevitable when rearmament reaches saturation point. Instead it hides its ineptitude behind the last retreat of those who have no programme, namely vague generalisations.
   Labor's defence policy is humane because Labor has most to lose in time of war. It stands to lose the lives of its own people, which are more valuable than those of the so-called patriots who would sacrifice them on foreign battle fields. Labor's planned policy is not a mushroom growth based on re-armament, it will allow the nation's strength and prosperity to grow continuously with ever-increasing velocity.
   We approached the unemployment problem from the national economic standpoint and our policy, with the nation's credit as backing, will not only remove this ugly blot on Australia's economic life but will so advance the nation that it will contribute substantially to the nation's defence programme. Wealth production is limited by manpower. The non-employment of manpower means the reduction of the power to produce wealth. Doles and starvation rates of relief pay sap the moral and mental fibre of those who are forced by circumstances to accept them. Industrial armies engaged in the construction of homes, roads, schools and other permanent works are sustained, just as our military armies, by production and transport armies in the rear. They are fed with the energies of field workers; they are clothed, shod and equipped with the energies of workers in factories.
   No hocus pocus about banking and currency systems can alter these fundamental facts. The Labor Party therefore is determined that no group of private bankers, no coterie of vested interests and certainly no instrumentality set up originally by the people for the people shall stand in the way of bringing industrial emancipation to Australia's unemployed army.
   If we have a look around what do we see? In Japan industry works to a set plan, and banks function as working parts of the national purpose. Japan has expanded by the applied industrial energies of her people and not by means of foreign loans. Whether the future of Russia will be as good as her friends predict or as bad as her enemies prophesy, it is unquestionably true that Russia has never before in her history has her internal economic power highly developed. Russians have dammed rivers; developed heat, light and power; created hundreds of new industries; developed and duplicated railways; multiplied schools, college and health centres; but her every unit and her revenues are not in bondage to foreign bond holders. In Italy since 1922 the banks function to serve the policies of the government. Previously, the banks dictated government policy. The great industries are still privately owned but they work for ends designed by the government and the limit of their dividends is at the will of the government. As a result of this harnessed financial system swamps have been drained, land reclaimed, food production increased and in a territory which is only one third the size of New South Wales, wheat production exceeds Australia's record harvest. Slums have been blasted away, new residential cities located on new areas and production has been intensified. Incidentally, Italian workers enjoy a 40 hour week.
   Disregarding the political colour of the Russian and Italian and Japanese governments, it is shown that these root out slums, build new cities and pursue health and physical fitness. These governments control banking and currency and make them the servant and not the master of industry. The governments think, talk and act in terms, not of paper money, but of human and mechanical energy and productive power.
   Instead of advancing, however, in Australia, all around we see malnutrition and a great deal of idleness. It cannot be disputed that the government can, that is if it so desires, absorb manpower in a campaign of national construction works. Government's use manpower in war to destroy assets, the Labor Party declares that its government will use manpower to create assets. It is said that public works should not be constructed unless they are reproductive, that means the maintenance of a service must be levied on the actual users of that service. Adopting that principle rigidly and applying it, society could not exist. It would mean that outback people could not be given a railway, a post office or a school, because the people served by those utilities would be too few to maintain them. On the principle of maintenance payments by actual users, there would be no hospitals for the sick, asylums for the insane or prisons for the wrong doers. On the same principle there could not be an art gallery, a museum, a public library, a park, a botanic garden or a national highway without tollgates. Every public utility in service for the convenience, instruction, pleasure or protection of the community has to be maintained by the community according to the ability of each person to pay. The wealth of a country does not consist merely in an increase of livestock or of bank credits, but in everything that beautifies life and lifts mankind to a higher level.
   The non-productive argument used in opposition to public works is a revival of the tollgate on public roads. Under the present system of trading bank interest charges, it is not the men who are engaged in public works who collect the interest; it is not the men who supplied the food, clothing and shelter to those workers who collect it; its collection by a private group of bankers does not end when the work on a particular project ceases. It goes on to be a burden on the labour of unborn generations.
   Yet the Commonwealth Bank as originally constituted [by] the late Sir Dennison Miller … if bank expenses … public works and were placed as an integral part for the betterment of the conditions of its people for … to vote Labor for the House … who also solidly vote… END OF AUDIO CLIP #

   [RECAPITULATION: Because land monopoly was an evil it placed a commutative tax, not on the processes of production, but on the accumulation of land by a few. In that way it started the way to closer settlement. Those reforms in banking, in currency, in land and in industry, all part of a progressive policy, were interrupted by the world war. ENDS.]
   [COMMENT: This speech was during the Great Depression of 1929-41.  Mr John Curtin later became Prime Minister during World War II (1939-45), when the conservative coalition fell apart.  He died before the war ended.  Curtin well understood the dangers of credit monopoly, and the need to use the national credit.  He had less of an understanding of the disease of land monopolisation (see 4th para.), but he and his party had done something about both dangers. COMMENT ENDS.]
   [2nd RECAPITULATION: On the same principle there could not be an art gallery, a museum, a public library, a park, a botanic garden or a national highway without tollgates. … The non-productive argument used in opposition to public works is a revival of the tollgate on public roads. ENDS.]
   [2nd COMMENT: Toll roads are AGAIN being built, and so-called "Labor" governments have been either letting such contracts, or conniving at it.  Curtin must be turning in his grave! ENDS.]
   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Found by Metacrawler Search Engine. ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#john_curtin_leader
[1937]

• [1938 -- Roman Catholic Cardinal Innitzer welcomed Nazi takeover of Austria.]  Austria flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Germany flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags  Germany, Nazi, 1935-45 flag; http://rabbit.eng.miami.edu/flags  

[Roman Catholic Cardinal Innitzer welcomed Nazi takeover of Austria, 1938]

   The rise and fall of the Third Reich; A History of Nazi Germany, Fawcett Crest Books, New York, ISBN 0-449-23442-8, © 1959, 1960, by William L. Shirer, p 476, actual occurrences 1938
   … Many Catholics in this overwhelmingly Catholic country were undoubtedly swayed by a widely publicized statement of Cardinal Innitzer welcoming Nazism to Austria and urging a Ja vote. *
____________________
* A few months later, on October 8, the cardinal's palace opposite St. Stephen's Cathedral was sacked by Nazi hooligans.  Too late Innitzer had learned what National Socialism was, and had spoken out in a sermon against the Nazi persecution of his Church.
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#roman_catholic_cardinal
[occurred 1938]

• [Credit could be created, Dr H.H.G. Schacht told Germany.]  Germany flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags   

[Credit could be created, Dr H.H.G. Schacht told Germany.]

   I paid Hitler book, by Fritz Thyssen, Hodder and Stoughton publishers, 1941.
   Hitler is totally ignorant of economics.  He lets himself be taken in by notions which he thinks he understands and which do not make the slightest sense.  … One day Dr. Schacht, weary of all the futile and costly agitation of the party economists, declared publicy that it was absurd from the economic standpoint to build pyramids in order to occupy the unemployed …
   Hitler is constantly afraid of not seeing things in large enough proportions.  Pyramids, Napoleonic roads, Roman roads are an obsession with him.  He plans his highways for centuries to come… Money does not count.  And unhappy Dr. Schacht had to torture his brain to find a way of financing these unproductive projects.  After exhausting himself in protesting he eventually resigned his office.  Yet he must bear part of the responsibility.
   It was he, indeed, who at the beginning of the new regime showed the Nazis how to use credit.  No doubt he desired to remain within reasonable limits.  But Hitler, seeing that credit could be created -- according to Dr. Schacht's incautious formula -- never wanted to halt his course …"
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#credit_could_be
   [BACKGROUND: Fritz Thyssen, a German industrialist, who for more than 15 years backed Hitler and financed the Nazi movement, at the 1939 outbreak of World War II fled from Nazi Germany to Switzerland, later publishing I paid Hitler, from which the above is taken.
   According to Shirer's book, Dr Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht had been employed by the German republic and had used credit creation to launch the country on the road to recovery -- there had been millions and millions unemployed.  He had done this WITHOUT returning to the 1920s hyperinflation, which had caused millions of mark banknotes and even postage stamps to be printed and overprinted.  Parts of the "elites" wanted another war, but the majority just wanted a chance to earn a living.  Hitler hired him, too, but misused the "credit creation" trick to prepare for war, while the rest of the world feverishly exported to Germany, and told their own populations there was "no money" for peacetime or defence needs. ENDS.]
   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: O.T., November 9, 2007, p 4. ENDS.] [Occurrences up to 1939, book 1941]

• American Ball Bearings for Soviet Missiles.  Soviet flag (superseded ~ 1990); Mooney's MiniFlags  United States of America flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Sweden flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  Germany flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags  Italy flag; www.edwardmooney.com/miniflags 

American Ball Bearings for Soviet Missiles

   From the book National Suicide; Military aid to the Soviet Union, by Antony C. Sutton, parts of pp 91-100, © 1973
   Ball bearings are an integral part of many weapons systems; there is no substitute.  The entire ball bearing production capability of the Soviet Union is of Western origin–utilizing equipment from the United States, Sweden, Germany, and Italy. … All Soviet tanks … missiles and related systems including guidance system have bearings manufactured on Western equipment or Soviet duplicates …
   … the Bryant Chucking Grinder Company of Springfield, Vermont … 1931 Bryant shipped 32.2 percent of its output to the USSR. … 1934 … 55.3 percent… 1938 one-quarter … shipments were also made under Lend-Lease …
   Soviet dependence on the West for ball bearings technology peaked after … 1959-61, when the Soviets required a capability for mass production … of miniature precision ball bearings for weapons systems.
   The only company in the world that could supply the required machine for a key operation in processing the races for precision bearings (the Centalign-B) was the Bryant Chucking Grinder Company. …
   In 1960 the USSR entered an order with Bryant … for forty-five … machines. …
   In 1961 a Senate subcommittee … report stated: … the decision to grant the licence was a grave error. 7 […]
   In 1972 … Bryant … announced a contract with the Soviets for 164 grinding machines. …
   … the Soviets have five times more missiles than they did twelve years ago.
___________________
7 U.S. Senate, Proposed Export of Ball-Bearing Machines to U.S.S.R. (Washington, 1961)
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#american_ball
   [PREFACE: In the Preface, dated November 1972, the author writes: "The 100,000 Americans killed in Korea and Vietnam were killed by our own technology. This tragedy was brought about by irrational policies … information is still censored." ENDS.] [1973]

• [Tax low-elasticity items, such as unimproved land] 

[Tax low-elasticity items, such as unimproved land]

   "A great economy is one which includes everyone," leaflet, Prosper Australia (Victoria), 1st floor, 27 Hardware Lane, Melbourne, issued about 2007-08.  (File as 1981 until the date of Mr Tobin's statement is determined) 1981
   "I think in principle it's a good idea to tax unimproved land, and particularly capital gains (windfalls) on it.  Theory says we should try to tax items with zero or low elasticity, and those include sites." – James Tobin, Winner, Nobel Prize in Economics, 1981

   [CONTACT: Prosper Australia (Victoria), 1st floor, 27 Hardware Lane, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia; Telephone 03 9670 2754. www.prosper. org.au ; www.earth sharing. org.au ; or click www.lvrg. org.au . ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#tax_low_elasticity
[2007-08 (File as 1981 until date is determined) 1981]

• [Rothschilds and friends manage world gold prices.]  Britain and Northern Ireland, United Kingdom of, flag; Mooney's MiniFlags  

Gold rides on deals at a desk

 
   The West Australian, "Gold rides on deals at a desk," p 70, Monday, May 25, 1987.
   LONDON, England: Every working day at 10.30am and again at 3pm, a representative of each of the five major London bullion houses sits down at a desk in a private meeting room at the office of N.M.Rothschild and lifts the handset of a telephone which links him with his dealing room.
   The London gold fixing has commenced and for the duration of the 'fix' the room at Rothschild's become the communications centre of global bullion trading.
   That process has been going on almost without break since September 1914 when the same five bullion firms first fixed the price at Stg4.94 pounds.
   The London gold market is composed of some of the oldest financial institutions in London. Mocatta and Goldsmid Ltd -- the oldest at over 300 years -- pre-dates the Bank of England.   . . .
   The purpose of the fixing is straight forward -- to provide customers with the chance of buying and selling gold at a single quoted price.
   This is important for jewellery fabricators, speculators, investors and others because dealing outside the fixings is on the normal bid and offer basis. […]
   The fixing price quoted in U.S. dollars, truly represents the matching of important and high volume orders from bullion markets and customers throughout the world with a big number of international suppliers, mining companies, dealers and investors.
[…] benchmark of world gold prices. […]

   THE GOLD HOUSES:
• Mocatta and Goldsmid Limited – founded in 1684, ten years before the Bank of England, is now a subsidiary of Standard Chartered Bank Limited.
• Sharps, Pixley Limited – a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Kleinwort Benson Group, was formed in 1957 by the merger of Sharps R. Wilkins and Pixley and Abell. Sharps R. Wilkins commenced business about 1750.
• N.M. Rothschild and Sons Limited was founded in 1804.
• Samuel Montagu and Company Limited, founded as a banking partnership in 1853, is now the wholly-owned merchant banking subsidiary of Midland Bank Limited.
• Mase Westpac Limited – this Australian banking group purchased Johnson Mattey Bankers Limited earlier this year – Johnson Matthey can trace its gold trading history back to 1817.
   [COMMENTS: 1. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) back in the 1600s brought in many of the ancestors of the dealers still dominating gold and money affairs. 2. The Westpac Bank (originally supposedly an Australian bank), the last-mentioned of these well-heeled groups, managed to actually post a loss in later years. One wonders how many wealthy groups were then able to buy the shares cheaply, and so gain great unearned profits later? - Just World Campaign, 13 Dec 03. COMMENT ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#gold
[May 25, 1987]

• Bond full of praise for Pinochet's Chile. Australia flag; www.flagaustnat.asn.au /  Chile flag; Mooney's MiniFlags 
   The West Australian, "Bond full of praise for Pinochet's Chile," Sat Sep 12, 1987, p 3
   MELBOURNE, Victoria, AUSTRALIA: Business man Alan Bond says Chile's military dictator, General Pinochet, is popular among the Chilean people.
   ". . . you can walk around the streets freely," he said.
   Mr Bond was responding to criticism of his business links in Chile through an American goldmining company bought by his family company, Dallhold Investments. 
   . . . he was arranging for a television crew to go there.  . . . new owner of the Channel Nine network . . .
   The Federal Secretary of the Australian Journalists' Association, Mr Mike Sutherland, … [hoped] they are allowed to get shots of the mass graves of tortured victims … and of the massive poverty there.  …
   [COMMENT: Mr Bond, a WA entrepreneur who rose through real estate and brewing to operating multinational companies which were caught by a stock-exchange fall later in 1987, in spite of acting and talking like a capitalist, was hand-in-glove with the "Labor" Governments of the time, both State and Federal.
   In later years he went through the courts over allegations that multi-millions of dollars were missing from Bond companies and the Bell Group.
   General Pinochet has been avoiding courts on charges of human rights abuses including torture and murders, just as the trade union movement and human rights groups stated repeatedly. – Just World Campaign, Aug 1, 2003. COMMENT ENDS] [Sep 12, 1987]

• WA petitions reject ID card. PERTH: W.A. petitions calling on Parliament to reject the Australia card will be presented to the Senate next week. Liberal Senator Sue Knowles said yesterday that the petitions, which contained 11,193 signatures, had been given to her Perth office during the past few days. The West Australian, "WA petitions reject ID card," Sat Sep 12 1987, p 3
   [COMMENT: One of the most active groups, which collected about 7000 signatures, was the Council for Civil Liberties in Western Australia Inc. COMMENT ENDS] [Sep 12, 87]
• Move on racist posters. PERTH: Bassendean Town Council and Bayswater City Council have moved to confront the rash of racist stickers, posters and slogans which have appeared this year.  … North Ward councillor Gerry Leeuwangh said . . . the stickers had been put up by the Australian Nationalist Movement. He compared the material with racial propaganda produced in Nazi Germany. Eastern Suburbs Reporter, East edition, "Move on racist posters," by Ray Brindal, p 1, Tue Nov 10 1987
• [U.S. and Israel reject U.N. anti-terrorism resolution]         

[U.S. and Israel reject U.N. anti-terrorism resolution]

   United Nations, General Assembly, December 1987
   NEW YORK: In December 1987, at the peak of concern over international terrorism, the UN General Assembly passed its major resolution on the matter, condemning the plague in the strongest terms and calling on all nations to act forcefully to overcome it.  The resolution passed 153-2 (U.S. and Israel), Honduras alone abstaining.  – Statement by Noam Chomsky in the book September 11, published 2001, by Noam Chomsky, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, Australia, ISBN 1 86508 818 8, page 73.
[December 1987]
• 1989, June 4: Tiananmen Square:   The Chinese Communist Party, having brought in troops from outlying areas, crushed students and others campaigning for democracy, and against corruption, in Tiananmen Square, Beijing.  People were run over by tanks.  Blood sprayed everywhere.  The tanks kept moving, as if the people weren't there. [June 4, 1989]

• DUNKLEY, Godfrey; 1991;    Land Tenure: A time bomb ticking in South Africa.  

  Booklet of a talk he gave in London (ISBN 0-620-16386-0)   
   (1st paragraph to be inserted here later.)
   (From pages 3 to 5 to be inserted here later.)
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm (Remainder of ref to be inserted later)
[To webpage 30 Aug 2013; 21-27 March 1991]

• [Taxes on economic rent and inheritances: Howard.]   

[Taxes on economic rent and inheritances: Howard.]

   The Australian Financial Review, p 15, December 10, 1991
   AUSTRALIA – "I do not deny that all taxes, with the exception of those on economic rent and inherited wealth, have some employment and economic growth effects." – John Howard (for many years Prime Minister of Australia).

   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Prosper Australia (Victoria), 1st floor, 27 Hardware Lane, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. Telephone 03 9670 2754.  Leaflet "A great economy is one which includes everyone," ~ 2007-08. ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#taxes_on_economic
[Dec 10, 1991]

   • Bankers and Bastards, 1992, Paul McLEAN and James RENTON, Hudson Publishing, Hawthorn (Victoria, Australia).
Bankers and Bastards, McLEAN and RENTON, 22.9kb Bankers and Bastards, back cover, 22.8kb
This book is all about the way banks and bankers have moved from providing a service and advice, into being profit-oriented purveyors of dubious "products" (back cover). For example, in mid-1988 (page 3) the owner of Huon Valley Springs Pty Ltd (p 16,) approached Senator Paul McLean saying that the Commonwealth Bank had emptied out her trading account by putting the money on term deposit, stopping her from making the interest payment on her capital loan from the development arm of the bank (page 3).  The trading bank then took her to the Bankruptcy Court, even though she sold other assets and had paid the proceeds to the trading bank section (see Senate Hansard 23 August 1990, pp 2129-31).
   There were also the famous Westpac Letters, revealed in the Australian Senate.  These documents ought to have been referred to the National Crime Authority in February 1991 (p 88), but weren't.  The book covers the Foreign Currency Loan scandal.  The "Establishment" managed to squash Senator McLean's exposures, which had been made with the help of anonymous faxers from overseas. (Inserted on Books webpage 21 Dec 04, enlarged on Contents webpage 04 Apr 09)
Back Cover's wording:
Bankers and Bastards
… is all about the way banks and bankers have moved from being the respected pillars of the community, providing a trusted service and reliable advice, into being profit-oriented purveyors of dubious 'products'.  It's also about how we suffer the consequences and the government mainly looks on and watches.
   The authors became involved because people came to them for help: Renton as a lawyer, McLean as a politician.
   Paul McLean (right) has been a teacher, an army officer and a social planner.  But it was as Australian Democrat Senator for New South Wales that he became interested in bank malpractice.  His battle to get the Westpac Letters before the Senate is now history.
   James Renton (left) is a Barrister and Solicitor of the High Court of Australia.  He has made a speciality of white-collar crime, and has advised hundreds of victims of bank malpractice.  It was his files which provided many of the cases tabled in the Senate by Paul McLean.
   Jacket design by Vane Lindesay. (End of back cover)
   [How high interest led some producers to ruin]
   In its simplest terms, interest is the price of hiring money. … Australians, from the mid 80s through until mid 1991, were paying between 13-18% for home mortgages, 18-24% for overdraft funds, 20-25% for rural short-term finance, 20-25% on credit card finance and 18-25% on lease and hire purchase finance. … exorbitant … (p 122)
   It was to overcome the problem of high interest rates that many Australians, particularly farmers, were attracted by the bank 'product' known as Foreign Currency Loans.
   … borrow money in a foreign country which offered money at low interest rates …
   The big snag was that if the Australian dollar sank, the borrower had to pay more Australian dollars to pay off the loan. … (p 124)
   Then came the devaluation of March 1985.  The dollar went down by half against the Swiss franc, and … Australian interest rates went up still further. (p 125)
   The Westpac Letters
   On 29 January 1991 the Sydney Morning Herald had published an article by Anne Lampe containing extracts from some confidential letters to Westpac Bank (p 21).  Injunctions were obtained to prevent news media from further revealing their contents.  Eighteen pages of them were faxed to Senator McLean.  An Australian legal firm, Allen, Allen and Hemsley, was telling Australia's largest commercial bank, Westpac, that in their view there was a strong possibility that officers of their wholly-owned subsidiary, Partnership Pacific Pty Ltd, could be guilty of fraud, breach of fiduciary obligations, tax evasion, and breach of their statutory obligations to the Reserve Bank of Australia.
   The scam was that Partnership Pacific (PPL) sold its customers a 'product' which, effectively, enabled PPL to gamble on the foreign exchange market with its customers' money, and pass all the risk and the withholding tax to the customers, while taking the lion's share of the profit for itself.  If true, this would be a great fraud in Australia's history (pp 21-22).
   Both the Senate and the House of Representatives refused leave to table the Westpac Letters (p 24).  On 12 February 1991 the Senate even censored the letter that Senator McLean wrote to the President of the Senate giving his arguments as to why he ought to be allowed to table the Westpac Letters!
   However, in the South Australian Legislative Council, the Hon. Ian Gilfillan (Australian Democrat also) was allowed to read the Westpac Letters into the Hansard of that House (pp 25-26).
   In an extraordinary ruling by the New South Wales Supreme Court, Mr Justice Powell ruled that the Hansard of the South Australian Parliament could not be published in New South Wales (p 26).  The NSW ruling contravened Section 118 of the Federal Constitution (p 26).
   Senator McLean sent copies of the Westpac Letters to all senators, plus Prime Minister Bob Hawke, the Treasurer Paul Keating, the Attorney General Mr Duffy, and the Leader of the Opposition Dr Hewson. (p 27)
   Treasurer Paul Keating, through his parliamentary secretary, said that it was not appropriate to interfere in matters that might be the subject of litigation (p 65, but see p 27).
   The chief of staff of the Leader of the Opposition Dr Hewson sent the envelope back, unopened! (p 28).
   Why did these things happen?  Patronage.  The major parties need the favours of banks at election after election (pp 28-29).
   Furthermore, the Leader of the Opposition Dr John Hewson was an eminent banker and economist who had been on the staff of the managing director of the Commonwealth Bank, and immediately before entering parliament had been on the board of governors of the Macquarie Bank (p 29).
   [The French Letters]
   On Sunday 5 March 1991 at a meeting of the Foreign Borrowers' Association a very active member Mr John Torrisi held aloft an envelope postmarked Paris, 21 February 1991 (pp 33-34).  The documents it bore were then craftily dubbed "the French Letters."
   They were mainly handwritten internal memos of Partnership Pacific.  A central figure was Agnes Wong, whom Westpac seems to have sent to sort out the mess in the bank subsidiary's Foreign Loans department.  There seemed to be chaos, mistakes, misinformation and cover-ups – and insufficient staff to help sort it out.
   On 7 March 1991 the President of the Senate allowed Sen. McLean to table the Westpac Letters – to which he added the French Letters along with others (p 34).
   A key senior executive of Westpac, Mr John McLennan, had seen what a scam the 'foreign currency loans' were and how they devastated ordinary Australians, so he also exposed them (pp 73-74).  Later, Clive Alexander and Gerhard Moser joined him in public exposure of the loans (p 74).
   PPL (Westpac) was NOT the only financier to take part in the foreign loans scam – they were the ones that were exposed because their documents became public knowledge (p 74). …
   The serious reader ought to obtain a copy of "The Rigg Report," Submissions Authorised for Publication, 330 pages, free of charge from the office of the Standing Committee on Finance and Public Administration, Parliament House, Canberra (p 86).
   On Monday 24 February 1992, and Australian Broadcasting Corporation Four Corners report revealed, regarding the Westpac Letters, that an internal confidential report by a former Westpac employee, Clive Alexander, had mysteriously gone missing for four years (p 87).
   The Martin Inquiry report, A Pocket Full of Change, costing $3 million, was presented to Parliament on 27 November 1991.  The recommendations are that the banks can be trusted to keep their own houses in order.  It was a "whitewash" from beginning to end.  The damning bank letters and memorandums were not sent to the National Crime Authority for appropriate action (p 88).
   [Solutions, and thoughts]
   The people ought to work towards a national and multi-level debt reduction plan, holding a National Study of Indebtedness.  In spite of Prime Minister Bob Hawke's stupid promise that no Australian child would be living in poverty by 1990, there are still poverty-stricken children living in poverty in debt-stricken homes. 
   How far have the banks contributed to the problem by encouraging their customers to borrow to the hilt – and beyond? (p 156)
   The debt problem was neatly summed up by John Hotson, Professor of Economics at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, while he was in New Zealand in November 1991:
The financial system we have got is unsustainable.  It causes debt, and interest on debt, to rise far more rapidly than real income.  That is a formula for unsustainable growth and collapse.
(pp 157-8)
   DETAILS: Hudson Publishing, Hawthorn (Victoria), 1992. 178pp, 13.7 x 21.4 cm (5 3/8 x 8 3/8 inches), soft covers, well illustrated with documents proving main points, no footnotes, epilogue, index, ISBN 0-949873-40-3, $AUD16.95 in 1992.
   Paul McLean was elected as an Australian Democrats senator for New South Wales in July 1987 (page ix), and resigned in August 1991, having by then more than 600 files alleging bank corruption and malpractice (page xi).  He raised banking malpractice many, many times in and out of Parliament, and appeared before the Martin Inquiry (page x) [1992]

• [Uruguay Round force was to lower wages.]
 

[Uruguay Round force was to lower wages]

 
   Book The Growth Illusion; How economic growth has enriched the few, impoverished the many, and endangered the planet, by Richard DOUTHWAITE, Chapter "Ned Ludd was right," pp 92-95, 1992 The Growth Illusion
   Besides working for a greater freedom to grow within Europe, large companies have been attempting to use their governments to bring down barriers against them across the globe.  Just as the industrial leader of the time – Great Britain – championed the cause of free trade in the nineteenth century because its manufactures stood to gain, the present industrial, agricultural and service-sector leader, the United States, has been doing the same since the Second World War.  The vehicle it chose was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, an organization set up in 1947 to work towards international free trade. Countries belonging to GATT are committed to reducing tariffs and eliminating quotas and to abolishing preferential trade arrangements with particular states.
   There have been several rounds of GATT talks since 1947, each leading to a relaxation of trading restrictions, each inspired by the United States.  The latest was the Uruguay round, in which the main American goal was to eliminate non-tariff barriers to its exports, although it also sought to cut EC agricultural price supports, to let international banks operate freely, and to ensure that copyright fees were paid.  Most non-tariff barriers - like the restrictions placed by some countries on the import of timber from the tropical rain-forest or the EC's ban on American beef from cattle injected with extra hormones - had been introduced for very good reasons but since they conflicted with American corporations' interests, the United States wanted them swept away.
   Although the talks started in 1986, there was almost no public debate on the implications of the planned changes until about nine months before the agreement was due to be signed in December 1990.  Not that public opinion would have counted for much anyway.  The United States made little attempt to sell the tired old 'Free trade is good for everybody' line it had used in previous rounds; instead, it relied on threats to push through the agreement, which it assembled as package, to be accepted or rejected as a whole. If any country was considering rejection, the United States made it clear that a trade war would break out with serious implications for that country's exports.
   It was 'a Rambo-like attempt to bludgeon the rest of the world into submission' commented The Guardian on the day the talks broke up without agreement, to be resumed the following year. As this book went to press in early 1992, it was by no means clear what the outcome would be.
   The United States knew what it was doing when it dropped the 'benefits of free trade' argument.  Even economists are beginning to lose faith in it, although it is one of the foundations of the discipline. According to the man The Economist calls the leading academic authority on the new approach to trade theory, Paul Krugman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 'the case for free trade is currently more in doubt than at any time since the publication of Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy which introduced the idea of comparative advantage, on which the main argument for the benefits of international free trade rests.
   The 'comparative advantage' argument is that if every country produces only those goods it makes best, and then trades them for everything else it needs, everyone everywhere will have more of everything, because the resources involved have been used most efficiently, provided that there is perfect competition.  This latter requirement, however, makes the argument totally inapplicable in the real world, although Krugman and his colleagues are hard but vainly to adapt it to cope with markets dominated by a few large transnational firms.
   [And the article puts the argument that a country needs a mix of various types of employment, so as to use the various attributes and skills of people.  Also, such unplanned changes to trade such as were caused by Mad Cow Disease are ill served if "less efficient" cowherds had been previously forced onto the dole queues or transformed into urban beggars!]
   [P. 95] International free trade inescapably leads to a levelling down.  It means that salaries and wages will tend to converge at Third World levels, and social security provisions in industrial countries will have to be cut …
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#uruguay_round
   [COMMENT: The USA in the early 2000s even increased the bounties it was paying to big agricultural businesses, to keep the farmers' votes.  "Free trade" is defined differently by Washington and New York globalists than in textbooks! COMMENT ENDS.] [1992]

• [Do your own double-glazing of windows.] 

[Do your own double-glazing of windows.]

   Solar Progress, www.anz ses.org , Dr Peter Lyons {as covered in Solar Progress, article "The invisible heat loss equation … and an invisible solution," by Victoria Grounds, Vol. 27, No. 2, June 2006}, Vol.13 No.2, 1992
   … Glass areas are the great source of 'invisible' heat loss.
   Windows are the weak link in the building envelope when it comes to insulation. […]
   Double glazing will solve these problems in some situations, but what can you do if double glazing is not a viable option because of cost, or window construction, or heritage buildings, or weight (glass is heavy), or access, or other limitations?
   So is there in invisible solution?
   Dr Peter Lyons found an answer. He published it in Solar Progress in 1992 [Vol.13 No.2]: 'Retrofit Product Report: Heatshrink Window Insulation Film'. He wrote "Some readers who have spent time in a northern hemisphere winter may have noticed hardware stores selling plastic film which is designed to be applied to an existing window frame. This is commonplace in North America and Europe. The film, which is usually polyester, is glass-clear and is attached to the frame on the inside of the window with double-sided tape. An airgap of (ideally) 10-20mm between the glass and film is formed and a hair dryer used to shrink the film tight until it is free of wrinkles. Instant double glazing, and a lot cheaper than glass or acrylic second glazing!" Dr Lyons went on to write of his own experiments with the film, and concluded "heatshrink plastic film is very cheap and nearly as good as glass in its thermal performance."
   In 1992 the only way to obtain this product was by traveling to the USA. It is now available in Australia, and sells throughout the world by mail order.
   Finally, why are these questions important? A typical pre-1996 3-bedroom standard house* has a glass-to-wall ratio of 21.74%. Each square metre of glass conducts 5.5 Watts of heat for each degree temperature difference across the glass. A house with 25 square metres of windows heated to 24 degrees Celsius when the temperature outside is 0 degrees is sending 3300 Watts of energy, literally, out the window - that's the same as turning on a 3.3 kWh heater and leaving it outside!
____________________
* House perimeter 48 metres, ceiling height 2.4 metres, total wall surface (including window areas) = 115 sq.m. Total glass area = 25 sq.m. Windows 4mm thick clear float glass, single glazed, aluminium frames.
Further Information: www.clear comfort.com. au #
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#do_your
[orig. 1992]

• [How John Howard fell into 100 big banks' 1996 trap.]   

[How John Howard fell into 100 big banks’ 1996 trap.]

   The Australian Financial Review, June 7, 1996
   AUSTRALIA – … As [Australian Prime Minister] John Howard swept into the chandeliered banquet hall to address top executives of 100 of the world's biggest banks this week, he could not have known that a trap had been laid for him.
   The bankers, the most internationally influential audience Mr. Howard has confronted since taking office, had spent half a day discussing the price they would demand from countries round the world for bankrolling them.  In an increasingly capital thirsty world international financiers, the commissars of capital, have become modern potentates with the power to dictate policy to states which have long considered themselves to be sovereign.  … By the time Mr. Howard took the lectern in Sydney, the speakers at the invitation-only International Monetary Conference had already set out a checklist of policies. 
   Most explicit was the chairman of the big US investment bank Goldman Sachs & Co, Mr. John Corzine, who was asked by the group to specify conditions for what he called "the inherently blunt process that leaves many worthy initiatives without resources.  …

   [RECAPITULATION: … international financiers … have become modern potentates with the power to dictate policy to states which have long considered themselves to be sovereign. ENDS.]
   [ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Anonymous author, © 2004, booklet The Money Trick: Creating money from nothing is a bank's best trick!  Veritas Publishing, Midland (Western Australia), ISBN 09587 6023-3, pp 31-32. ENDS.]
   [LINK: Reprint of the above, and comments, from the 2004 booklet, click: Chronology 14 # How John Howard. ENDS.]
http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#how_john_howard
[June 7, 1996]

• Australia's Outrageous Parliamentary Pensions  Australia flag; www.flagaustnat.asn.au/ 
   Australian Reader's Digest, editors.au@ readersdigest. com , pp 17-23, issue of January 1997
READER'S DIGEST   •  JANUARY 1997   |  AUSTRALIA'S OUTRAGEOUS PARLIAMENTARY PENSIONS   |  17
Our MPs have voted themselves a retirement plan the average taxpayer can only dream of

Australia's Outrageous Parliamentary Pensions


BY PAUL RAFFAELE
I MAGINE A pension plan that can return you more than 20 times as much as you've paid into it, or one that pays $1000 every week for the rest of your life - even though you have retired or were laid off in your thirties. Or imagine pension cheques for far more than average adult weekly earnings that keep on coming even if you get another full-time job - with the same employer.
   It may sound like a pipe dream, but it's true. Across Australia, retired state and federal politicians are feathering their nests with pensions that most of us would find hard to believe.
   Meet some of the members of Australia's new privileged class:
  • Former New South Wales premier Nick Greiner, 49, is eligible to receive about $70,000 a year in superannuation funded mostly by taxpayers. Yet he is currently a member of at least 12 company boards, operates from a state-funded office in Sydney (one of his retirement perks), and reportedly earns up to a million dollars a year on top of his pension.
  • Last March, Robert Tickner, former minister for Aboriginal affairs, now 45, was voted out of office after 12 years in federal parliament. He had a choice of an annual pension of about $68,000, payable immediately and for the rest of his life, or a lump sum of $340,000, plus $34,000 a year, also payable for life.
  • Joan Kirner left the Victorian parliament in 1994 at the age of 55. She received an immediate superannuation payout of $240,000, then claimed up to $360,000 more, citing ill health. When she was refused the additional sum, Kirner had already secured a $104,000-a-year job as chair of the federal government's Employment Services Regulatory Authority.
       Nobody should begrudge hardworking politicians a decent pension when they retire. But our elected representatives are getting retirement deals far better than what the average Australian can get. Unlike ordinary working people whose pensions are based on what they pay into retirement funds, our politicians may pay in as little as a twentieth of what they take out. And unlike ordinary people, politicians get to set up their own pension schemes and award themselves increases in payouts. Ordinary folk have to wait for their superannuation until the retirement age of at least 55 - more often between 60 and 65 - but once politicians become eligible, they automatically receive theirs the moment they leave parliament, sometimes with 30 years or more of working life still ahead of them.
       "It's outrageous," says Peter McDonald, national director of the Australian Taxpayers' Association, a nationwide body representing the interests of taxpayers. "A system that allows MPs to leave office with their pensions decades before most privately employed people retire is misuse of the public purse."
       The differences between private and politicians' pension plans are staggering. Packages for the nation's 223 federal and 477 state and territory MPs are often worth several times more than people in the private or public sector ultimately get from their superannuation schemes.
       Take Michael Lavarch, federal attorney general from 1993 until he was voted from office in March last year at the age of 34. In his nine years in parliament, Lavarch paid in around $82,000 to the parliamentary superannuation fund. When he lost his seat, he could choose between a pension of about $52,000 a year payable for life from the day he lost office, or an immediate payout of $260,000, plus $26,000 a year for life. His future payments will be adjusted in line with the increase in parliamentary salaries, which have risen by an average 5.5 per cent a year since 1985. If he dies before his wife, she will receive five-sixths of his pension for the rest of her life. In their lifetimes Lavarch and his wife can expect to get about $2.5 million.
      Inevitably, the taxpayer foots the bill for these excesses to the tune of tens of millions of dollars  
       Now take a 34-year-old private-sector executive who is sacked after nine years and who had paid the same amount towards his super as Lavarch. The average private-sector plan for executives would provide a lump-sum benefit of about $275,000, to which he would not have access until at least the age of 55. He would receive no annual pension after that. His final benefit is about 20 per cent of the present value of Lavarch's.
       Unlike most private plans, retirement deals for politicians are indexed to parliamentary salary rises. But there is a big difference: private employers offer "accumulation plans" that are fully funded and they base benefits on how much the company and the employee pay in and how well the invested retirement funds perform. If the funds don't do well, neither does the employee. By contrast, state and federal government workers have defined benefit plans, whose payouts are guaranteed.
       Convicted rapist Keith Wright paid just over $50,000 into the parliamentary superannuation fund as a member of the House of Representatives from 1984 to 1993. Now serving an eight-year prison sentence, he is still eligible for an annual pension of about $43,000.
       Inevitably, the taxpayer foots the bill for these excesses to the tune of tens of millions of dollars.
       Inside Canberra, a weekly political newsletter, estimated last August that 18 former federal politicians paid in a total of $1.7 million to their super fund, for which they can expect pension payments over the course of their lives to add up to more than $30 million.
       Most state representatives fare equally well. The 1994-95 annual report of the New South Wales parliamentary retirement fund reveals that serving politicians in the state contributed $1.39 million to the fund while NSW taxpayers were lumped with a bill for $10.65 million to pay out retired politicians. "The cost of providing for the parliamentary super schemes is significantly more than for schemes in the private sector," says Professor Bob Walker of the School of Accounting at the University of New South Wales.
       Nowhere is state and federal government's mockery of the word "retirement" more apparent than in the phenomenon of double-dipping - politicians collecting a public pension and a public salary.
    Why are the superannuation rules weighted so heavily in favour of our members of parliament?
       Former health minister Dr Neal Blewett is a prime example. He may continue to draw at least half of his minister's pension even though he was back in the employ of the Australian taxpayer just months after quitting parliament in 1994. Now, as our high commissioner to the UK, Blewett is currently paid $129,333 a year on top of the pension.
       John Dowd has been eligible to collect a superannuation payout -now about $70,000 a year - since retiring from the New South Wales parliament in 1991 at the age of 50. In 1994, the government appointed him a judge in the Supreme Court of New South Wales, and he is now earning an additional taxpayer-funded $187,850 a year. When he retires as a judge, he will be able to collect an additional government pension, presently $108,369 per annum indexed each time judges' salaries rise.
       A specially cynical form of double dipping involves the payment of munificent "consultation fees" to former politicians. Former treasurer John Dawkins, eligible for an annual pension of around $80,000 as soon as he left parliament in 1994, also earned consulting fees that year as a special adviser to the federal government.
       Why are super rules so heavily weighted in MPs' favour? The simple answer is that politicians vote themselves their benefits.
       The payments are not easily discovered by the average citizen. In the 1996 federal budget brought before parliament last August, for example, the cost of benefits to be paid out from the scheme to retired politicians over the following 12 months - $16.09 million - was buried in a table in the middle of 1160 pages of documents.
       Laws relating to pension increases get pushed through parliament by stealth. Take the ease of MPs in Victoria, a state that prides itself on recently taking the axe to public spending. In mid-June in a late-night session in the Legislative Assembly, Deputy Premier Pat McNamara said that new pension laws would be lacked onto the Miscellaneous Acts (Omnibus Amendments), a bill unrelated to superannuation. No detail of the proposed changes was tabled for public scrutiny and the legislation was passed immediately and without debate, significantly increasing the annual package for retiring Victorian politicians. Nor was there a press release announcing the changes. "The normal adversarial system of parliament drops away to be replaced by bipartisan conspiratorial smugness when handling these bills," says former state and federal MP Ted Mack, a critic of politicians' super schemes. "It apparently doesn't worry them that their new deal represents a significant additional burden for taxpayers."
       Efforts made by Reader's Digest to obtain information about MPs' payouts for this article were blocked time and again by politicians, who refused to comment, and bureaucrats, one of whom said, "We are forbidden to give out such information." Payout estimates were provided by other sources and by applying mathematical formulas that included the length of service and position of the politician. "The secrecy is astonishing," says Mack. "In a democracy, all public money should be accounted for. Clearly, politicians won't talk because they know people would be outraged by the incredible amounts they get."
       Independent MP Alan Corbett, 42, will have special reason to celebrate if he serves seven years. He was elected on preferences to an eight-year term of office in the NSW Legislative Council in the election last year, having secured only 1.25 per cent of the primary vote. When his seven years are up, he will be eligible for a lifetime pension of almost half a backbencher's salary - currently $81,356 a year.
       Publicly denouncing such "rorting of public money," Mack resigned from the NSW parliament in 1988, two days before he became eligible for a package guaranteeing him some $40,000 a year (in today's values) for the rest of his life. Mack was elected to the federal parliament 18 months later, but did not stand for re-election for a third term, effectively ensuring that he did not qualify for a federal pension. "I've lost about a million dollars in super payments," Mack says, "but I would have lost my self-respect if I didn't oppose this system."
       Not surprisingly, on the rare occasions politicians discuss their payouts, they defend them. In August, Liberal MP Bob Charles said of the federal scheme, "It does appear generous if you are a high-flyer, but in most circumstances the payouts are quite low."
       A common defence is that a politician's career is full of uncertainty and liable to change direction suddenly at election time. "The trauma suffered by ex-MPs caused by their sudden loss can make them unemployable for a few months, so we should provide them with a better-than-average pension" says Walker.
       Mack disagrees. "All Australians live in uncertainty. Why should politicians get extra privileges? Anyone who has served as an MP has enough contacts and status to ensure a better chance of getting a job than most people who lose their jobs in company downsizing."
       Mack has a point. In 1995, Ros Kelly resigned from parliament after serving several years as environment minister, entitling her to a pension currently worth over $74,000 a year. Within months, Kelly began work as a highly-paid executive for the multinational environment consulting firm Dames and Moore.
       The year before, soon after leaving the Senate where he had served in several ministerial portfolios, 47-year-old, high profile "numbers man" Graham Richardson got work as a commentator for the Channel Nine network and columnist for current affairs publications, while still eligible to collect his super of more than $60,000 a year.
       The more senior the politicians, the more they can make outside politics. The Australian Financial Review Magazine reports political insiders estimating that former ministers with specialised knowledge of trade, financial services, venture capital and research can make $500,000 a year and probably much more by selling their expertise.
       Self-serving parliamentary pension schemes are not restricted to Australia, but the sums handed out to retiring politicians in other developed countries pale against ours. In the United States, congressmen cannot usually begin receiving their pensions until they are 50. A 20-year veteran of congress gets a sum equal to 34 per cent of his average annual pay over the three years that his salary was highest.
       A British MP does not receive a pension until the age of 65, whatever the age when leaving office. According to the British formula, Lavarch would have received a lump sum equal to half his final year's basic salary, plus a pension of one-fiftieth of the final year's salary for each year of service. He would have also had to wait another 31 years before he received his payout and his benefit would be worth two-thirds less. Ironically, our elected representatives' self-awarded largesse stands out at a time when politicians all over the country are demanding that public spending be slashed. Faced with an estimated $7.6-billion deficit on gaining office this year, the newly elected Coalition government announced cuts in government spending aimed at balancing the budget within two years.
       Following the Inside Canberra report into federal politicians' pensions in August, Treasurer Peter Costello announced that a "review" of the federal scheme would be made by trustees of MPs' super - all five of whom are MPs themselves. Costello announced no time frame for the review. "That's like putting Dracula in charge of the blood bank," says Mack. Vague undertakings to "review" the MPs' deals are not good enough. It's time to rein in runaway pensions for politicians. In straitened times when most Australians are being forced to tighten their belts for the economic wellbeing of the nation, reasonable people expect elected public servants to lead the way. Here's what must be done:
       Ban double dipping. When former MPs serve in a public office, paid by public funds, or are hired by governments as "consultants," they must forgo their parliamentary pensions. During previous governments some restrictions to double dipping were attempted, but did not go nearly far enough. Most never happened.
       Raise the retirement age to 55. "In most of the world, when you pay someone a pension, you expect that he will actually be retired," says Peter McDonald.
       Switch to "fully funded plans." A clear connection between what politicians put away for retirement and what they get out must be established. This won't happen until control over MPs' super is taken out of their hands and given to an independent committee empowered by law. The National Commission of Audit, a watchdog set up by the federal treasurer to report on the state of the nation's finances, recommended this step last June, advocating that "superannuation for parliamentarians and judges should be structured in a similar way to arrangements for senior executives in the rest of the workforce." It remains to be seen if Costello will heed the advice of his own commission.
       Publicly debate new payout deals for MPs. The practice of sneaking super-scheme amendments through the slipstream of other unrelated legislation in late-night parliamentary sessions must stop. "I feel it's tantamount to corruption," says Mack. "The public is employing these people. We're entitled to know exactly what they're getting."
       Provide fuller accounting. State and federal parliaments must make public the detailed accounts of their superannuation schemes whenever they are presented for approval. That should include full details of each politician's superannuation package - information presently "forbidden" to the public.
       In the end, these reforms can be hastened as a direct result of citizen outrage. The moral for Australian taxpayers: complain whenever a scandalous pension comes to your attention.
       The money saved will be your own.
    PHOTO: © AUSTRALIAN PICTURE LIBRARY / J. P. AND E. S. BAKER
    23
  • http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#australias
       [SEE ALSO: Politicians' Outrageous Perks, by Paul Raffaele, The Readers' Digest, Aug 1999   ENDS.] [January 1997]

    • Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan     

    Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan

       FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD of the United States of America, Remarks by FRB Chairman Alan Greenspan, At the Catholic University Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, http://www. federalreserve. gov/boarddocs/ speeches/ 1997/1997 0114.htm , by Mr Alan Greenspan, January 14, 1997
       LEUVEN – [A speech on Central Banking and its power to create credit to stop financial collapse.]

       [COMMENT: This speech became even more important when his successor and President BLUSH's administration were taking steps to counter-act the collapse of the New York financial firms in October 2008. COMMENT ENDS.]
    http://www.johnm.multiline.com.au/cont.htm#remarks_by_chairman
    [January 14, 1997]

    Students uncover untrue advertising; Ex-Senator's problems.
       WESTERN AUSTRALIA – Former Senator Jack Evans had enticed students from Asia to Australian Business College, in Perth, owned by him and his wife. The students discovered that even the signs on the ABC noticeboard weren't true, either. [The college later closed, after a court prosecution about putting students' trust funds into the general college bank accounts, instead of into separate trust funds. Other business colleges ended up taking the students in without charge, so that they could continue their studies.] Students' newspaper article was in the Murdoch Meteor, 1988
    2.   Esperanto is a Real Language: Don Harlow (Esp), U.S.A., 1998.  Esperanto League WA test website
    3.   Luxury spending $880m while 97 die: Ian Anderson and another, Perth, W.A., 1998
    4.   Translations; Traductions; Übersetzungen; Traduzioni; Traduções; Traducciones; Tradukoj, 1998
    5.   Contents Mirror of the GEA's Website #50:  Perth, orig. 11 Jun 97
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    7.   THE TAX REFORM BILL AND THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROBLEM (- GST): (Part 1 of 6) and, OPEN LETTER to all Senators and State Party Leaders: David Keane,  Perth, written Nov 1998
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    10. An Agenda for a Solution to Australia's National Long-Term Economic Problems: (Part 4)
    11. Setting up a People's Economic Council: (Part 5)
    12. Massive Tax Evasion by Multinationals: (Part 6, end)

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    14. Use Simple Roots in Esperanto: Sylvan Zaft (Esp), Jan 99
    15. Esperanto – Frequently Asked Questions: (FAQ) (Esp), Jan 99

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    16. Extravagant Share Prices Propped up by Big Business: Jan  and Dec 99
    17. Big end of town backs major parties: Feb 99;  and, Politician admits power of the Money Power: Sep 99
    18. G. S. T. tax reform and the Constitution: (-- 2nd OPEN LETTER on Goods and Services Tax): D. Keane, Feb 99
    19. MAI – Federal Government misleads us on M.A.I. revival – Stop-MAI WA Coalition, Mar 99
    20. Kosovo bombing on its own increases murders: Apr 99

    21. Australians for an Ecologically Sustainable Population: Apr 99
    22. Links Just World Campaign, for Social Justice & Economic Freedom
    23. Author Ranald and Cooke oppose the 20-year M.A.I.-type 'handcuffs' on safety and environment: May 99
    24. Yugoslav e-mail pleas against extremism, killing, and bombing (Kosovo crisis): Serbia, Apr-May 99
    25. Beverley mine to irradiate underground water (Uranium mining): The Advertiser, Adelaide, 18 March 99, and The West Australian, October 11 1999

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    26. Unimproved rating is world's best: John Massam, in the Post, Subiaco, W.A., ~ May 99.
    27. Who will pay people displaced by computers and automation?  Robert Theobald, U.S.A., May 99
    28. Anti-MAI action turning-point against free market fundamentalism – MAI: Sydney academics, May 99
    29. Landlessness is basic cause of poverty: Gordon Rudlin, of England, in New Internationalist, May 99
    30. Tax Reform at Top End is urgent – G.S.T.:  John Nydam, of Sydney, May 99

    31. Ramshackle G.S.T. will do nothing for Employment:  Allen Fairhall, former Liberal Federal Minister, May 99
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    34. Review pastoral rents: Labor: Julie Butler, The West Australian, 3 June 1999, AND "White land rights:" J.Massam, Progress, Melbourne, Nov-Dec 1999.
    35. Whistleblower counts cost of revelations – E.U.: The West Australian, 7 June 1999, and 6 Oct 99

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    36. Exposing the crime and providing the cure; Foreign powers find it cheaper than invasion to use dollars; they will be welcomed with open arms and fabulous tax concessions: Clyde Cameron, A.O.,  former Labor Federal Minister, of South Australia, 30 May 1997
    37. Skandalo de Ricxeco apud gigantaj mizeroj, Ne Malaperis: Esperanto, Will Simcock, of Britain, 1997 (or read English translation Doc. 60)
    38. Free-Trade Slaves for $70 a month:  SBS Television, June 1999
    39. Vojagxantoj: Esperanto poem,  (Former URL vojagha.htm)  Alan Mendelawitz, of Perth, Western Australia, 1999.

    40. Australian public meeting opposes treaties like the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) English (Former URL stopmai.htm): Brian Jenkins, Perth, 28 June 99
    41. Auxstralia publika kunveno oponas traktatojn simila al la Multlatera Kontrakto pri Investo (M.K.I.) Esperanta Esperanto, as above
    42. La réunion publique Australienne s'oppose à traités similes à l'Accord Multilatéral sur l'Investissement (A.M.I.) Fraais  French (Former URL ami.htm)
    43. Australische allgemeine Sitzung setzt Verträgen wie die Vielseitige Vereinbarung über Investition entgegen (V.V.I.) Deutsch  German (Former URL stopger.htm)
    44. La riunione pubblica Australiana oppone i trattati come l'Accordo Multilaterale sull' Investimento (A.M.I.)  Italiano Italian
    45. A reunião pública em Austrália opõe tratados como o Acordo Muito-entregue no Investimento (A.M.I.) Português  Portuguese (Former URL stoppor.htm)
    46. La reunión pública Australiana opone tratados como el Acuerdo Multilateral en la Inversión (A.M.I.) Español  Spanish

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    47. Civil Representation in Australian Government: D. Keane, Perth, July 99
    48. Current Account Deficit Grows to $31 bn, seems unpayable – Free Trade, WTO: Neil Forscutt, NSW, in Progress, July-Aug 99
    49. Watch your back, minister – Free Trade, WTO:  J.Massam, in The West Australian, 15 July 99
    50. Regional Forests Agreement deception of Coalition: Perth, July 99

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    PARTIAL CONTENTS and ANCHOR LIST (After reading an article, use Browser's "Back" button to return to Anchor List)
    [Australian secret ballot advocated by Henry George.]   SYDNEY, Australia. Article 1833, speech 1890.
    Australia's Outrageous Parliamentary Pensions.  Imagine a pension plan that can return you more than 20 times as much as you've paid into it, or one that pays $1000 every week for the rest of your life. January 1997
    [Businessmen who backed Adolf Hitler] . GERMANY. 1923-1940s
    [Chinese immigration doubts.]  SAN FRANCISCO – … As the country grows, as people come in, wages will go down, and some day or other white men will be glad to get those diggings that the Chinamen are now working.  Speech of Feb 4, 1890, recalling event of ~ 1858
    [Comment that Mill's letter supported restrictions on Chinese immigration, and tribute to Henry George.] Nov 20, 1869
    [Communal credit usurped by banks.]  The banking system has been allowed to become the administrator of this credit and its financial derivative with the result that the creative energy of mankind has been subjected to fetters … 1920.
    [Credit could be created, Dr H.H.G. Schacht told Germany.] GERMANY. Even before Hitler his credit creation was bringing Germany out of depression, while the world suffered a "money shortage." 1941.
    [Do your own double-glazing of windows.]   Dr Peter Lyons and Victoria Grounds. 1992.
    [Freedom to Co-operate through Decentralisation.]  a society based on the unfettered freedom of the individual to co-operate in a state of affairs in which community of interest and individual interest are merely different aspects of the same thing. 1920.
    [Global Trade Competition Illusion.]   This failure involves the necessity of an increasing export of manufactured goods to undeveloped countries, and this forced export, which is common to all highly developed capitalistic States, has to be paid for almost entirely by the raw material of further exports. 1920.
    Gold rides on deals at a desk.  LONDON: Rothschilds and friends manage world gold prices.  May 25, 1987
    [Government bank financed Australia during First World War.] AUSTRALIA: Commonwealth Bank, Sir Denison Miller's statement. 1921
    [How John Howard fell into 100 big banks' 1996 trap.] AUSTRALIA: World bankers told Prime Minister John Howard that they would dictate financial policies. June 7, 1996
    [In 1892 came U.S. ban; right of exclusion defended.]  Henry George's New York Tribune article expressed a strong and strengthening sentiment that soon dominated State politics, inspired a long series of legislative acts, and eventuated in 1892, twenty-three years afterwards, in the passage by Congress of the Geary law, prohibiting "the coming of Chinese persons into the United States" and providing for deportation under certain conditions. 1892 +
    John Curtin, Leader of the Australian Labor Party, speaks on national defence, employment and banking policy during the 1937 Federal Election campaign.  He also opposed land monopolisation. AUSTRALIA. 1937
    [Mill said Chinese immigration would reduce wages.]  … the Chinese immigration, if it attains great dimensions, must be economically injurious … must diminish their wages, and reduce them to a lower stage of physical comfort and well-being […]  One kind of restrictive measure seems to me not only desirable, but absolutely called for ; the most stringent laws against introducing Chinese immigrants as coolies, i.e., under contract binding them to the service of particular persons.  November 20, 1869
    [Nominated by Anti-Coolies and independent groups.]  SAN FRANCISCO – Henry George declined the nomination by "Anti-Coolies," a workingmen's anti-Chinese movement, and "Charter Oak," an independent political organisation, to stand for the State senate.  ~ August 20-26, 1877
    Plans for War in 1934.  GERMANY (periodical of August 2007, book published 1934)
    Remarks by Chairman Alan Greenspan of the U.S. Federal Reserve Board. BELGIUM: Central Banks have the power to create credit to stop financial collapse. January 14, 1997
    Report Of The Joint Special Committee To Investigate Chinese Immigration, Senate of the United States of America, February 27, 1877
    [Roman Catholic cardinal Innitzer welcomed Nazi takeover of Austria, 1938] . AUSTRIA. 1938
    Scotland and Scotsmen. Henry George, the U.S. reformer, wanted the rents used for public purposes, and discussed differences of human beings. Feb 18, 1884
    [Shortage of Purchasing Power] – Economic Democracy. … it is clear that the total amount distributed in wages, salaries and profit or dividends, would be less by a considerable sum (representing purchases on factory account) than the total selling price of the product … 1920.
    [Taxes on economic rent and inheritances: Howard.] John Howard of Australia. Dec 10, 1991
    [Tax low-elasticity items, such as unimproved land.] Nobel Prize winner James Tobin. [Date unknown.]
    The Chinese on the Pacific Coast.  U.S.A.: … lying, stealing and false swearing are with the Chinamen venial sins … They have a great capacity for secret organisations, forming a State within a State – Henry George.  May 1, 1869
    The delusion of super-production. BRITAIN: Clifford H. Douglas. December 1918
    [Thomas Jefferson on banks.] UNITED STATES of AMERICA. 1802.
    [Uruguay Round force was to lower wages.] BRITAIN: Book. 1992.
    [Workmen denounce monopolies, Chinese immigration.]  SAN FRANCISCO: In San Francisco workmen held mass meetings, to denounce on the one side the great monopolies, … and on the other, Chinese immigration, as subjecting them to starvation competition.  [At the time, Henry George held the position of meter inspector.]  1877

    Brian Jenkins exposes WTO, compiled by a Perth social justice campaigner

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       VIRUS SHIELD: To prevent viruses coming in to the computer and/or being transmitted by e-mail or in any way to other people's computers, McAfee Virus Shield had been used for ages. On June 15, 2005, AVG Anti-Virus was installed for a trial period. On July 19, 2005, "AVG Free" Anti-Virus http://free.grisoft.com/doc/1 was installed.  This was removed around July-August 2010, following the installation of AVIRA Free http://www.avira.com/free-av on 30 Apr 2010.  Possibly my computer caused problems later, and in 2013 I removed AVIRA Free, and returned to AVG Free.
       SPYWARE PROTECTION: To keep spyware out of this website's home computer, Spybot - Search and Destroy http://www. spybot.info/en/ was installed on 31 Aug 2003 at the suggestion of Graeme Platt of Multiline, and found 44 spyware programmes. Version 1.3 was installed on 15 July 2004 at the suggestion of GANM, and found 20 problem files. Version 1.4 was installed on 15 July 2005, and found 6 spywares.  Ad-aware has also been used from ~ 2005 onwards.  There seemed to be too many such programmes on the computer, so Ad-aware was removed, possibly around 2011.
       IMAGES TOOL: Corel Paint Shop Pro (formerly JASC Paint Shop Pro) programme is being used to deal with Pictures, by getting details, manipulating, changing sizes and formats, etc.
       Check the art for sale on <http://www.sarits-art.com.au>.  Entry made 28 Jan 2004. NOT responding 22 July 2012.
       LINK DISPLAY MODERNISED: Links on SOME webpages that are NOT shown in blue, will become blue if the mouse pointer/cursor passes over them.  This "hover" command was copied from HTML for the World Wide Web, Elizabeth Castro, www.cookwood.com , © 2003, Peachpit Press, Berkeley CA, USA, www.peachpit.com . The suggestion not to show them in standard style was made by MCM.
       BROWSER TESTING: Occasional tests are done on a few web browsers.  For example, at 05 September 2008 these were:-  Microsoft ® Internet Explorer version 7.0.5730.13, Mozilla Firefox 3.0.1.0 (released June 17th, 2008), Opera 9.51, and Netscape Navigator 9.0.0.5.
       ON JAN 07, 2011 (Google Chrome having been used for a while, then removed over privacy issues), the test browsers were:- Microsoft ® Internet Explorer version: 8.0.6001.18702, Mozilla Firefox 3.6.8, Opera 10.63, Netscape Navigator 9.0.0.5, and (from ~ Jan 6, 2011) Apple Safari 5.0.3 (© 2007-2010).
       Possibly during 2011 Google Chrome browser was reinstalled.  So the browsers were Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, and Safari.  (Netscape having ceased being "supported," and causing "error" messages on a website, it was removed possibly during 2010 or 2011) - jcm 09 Jan 2012
       E-MAIL was changed over ~ Jan 6, 2011 from Microsoft Outlook Express to Mozilla Thunderbird 3.1.7, which is free and open source software held under Mozilla Public Licence.   Later Outlook Express was re-installed, and both e-mail programmes were used. - jcm 09 Jan 2012.
       COOKIES, SPYWARE AND MALWARE REMOVAL: The Webmaster uses various methods to remove "Cookies," i.e., small programmes of about 1 kilobyte that, without permission, come into computers when online, or from infected discs or thumbdrives, in order to report back to those who send them, AND for malware, i.e., programmes that similarly invade any website, often with the aim of disabling or harming the website, and other people's. 
  • AVIRA © AntiVir Personal Free Anti-virus (v. 10.0.0.609 as at 07 Jan 2011, © 2000 - 2010)
  • Spybot ™, which can use Esperanto as one of its 46 languages. (It was version 1.4 on 07 Dec 2007, and 1.6.0.30 on 07 Jan 2011)
  • Lavasoft Ad-Aware ®, at http://www.lavasoft.de/ (v. 3.61 upgraded to v. 7.0.2.5 on 07 Dec 07, and it was 7.1.0.12 on 07 Jan 2011).  Removed possibly 2011.
  • The Microsoft ® Windows ordinary Search facility, search for Cookies, to be then deleted.

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    "Bach's Brandenberg Concerto No 3", MIDI music, 142 kb, plays for 6min 7sec. Music by courtesy of Microsoft. Console 145 x 40 pixels HTML adapted from Hypergurl and others.
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